The Norfolk and Western 611 is a 4-8-4 "Class J" steam locomotive and perhaps the most advanced such Northern ever built (generally the 4-8-4 design was known as Northerns but the N&W built their own and classed them as Js).
The N&W began building its 4-8-4s around the start of World War II
in 1941 and would ultimately come to own fourteen such designs, which
were built exclusively for passenger service receiving streamlining
either when they were first out-shopped or later, after the war. An
extremely well-built 4-8-4 design by N&W's own shops sadly only the
611 was preserved although for more than a decade it was used as part of
Norfolk Southern's steam program before being retired to the Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke. As of 2015 #611 will again be under steam.
Norfolk & Western #611 steams through rural Rockfish, Virginia with a matching string of maroon and gold passenger cars as it leads another excursion on May 15, 1993.
Purely on looks the Northern Type, in general, was one of the most
beautiful steam locomotive designs ever developed. While some of these
handsome locomotives would receive streamlining even without such
enhancements they were still a fine looking piece of machinery with a
“streamlined” tender and centered headlight. This steam locomotive
gained its name from the Northern Pacific Railway due to the fact that to burn the low-grade coal found along the railroad the steamer needed a larger firebox. One particular feature that made the 4-8-4 wheel arrangement
so successful was its versatility where it was just as capable of
pulling a time-sensitive passenger train clipping along at 70+ mph as it
was at lugging a heavy freight train over stiff grades.
versatility, along with the locomotive being equipped with some of the
latest technology, made the Northern Type one of the most successful
designs of all time with over 1,000 built for 36 different railroads.
Perhaps the most well known Northerns to ever operate including the
Norfolk & Western’s handsome J Class, Southern Pacific’s Golden States, and New York Central’s Niagaras just to name a few (there were many others). The N&W's shop forces in Roanoke, Virginia were masters at
building steam locomotives, likely even better at the craft than the
"Big Three" steam builders (the Baldwin Locomotive Works,
American Locomotive Company, and Lima Locomotive Works). They were
always looking for ways to improve a locomotive's operation and
efficiencies and regularly built their own steamers instead of
In the case of Norfolk and Western 611 and its sibling "Class J"
4-8-4 locomotives, the railroad was looking for a fast, reliable, and
efficient steamer which could pull a passenger train consist over its
rugged main line through western Virginia and southern West Virginia.
The N&W's first group of these locomotives was built between 1941
and 1942 numbered 600-604. They featured 70-inch drivers and could
produce 80,000 pounds of tractive effort with a boiler pressure of 275
pounds-per-square-inch (this was later increased to 300 psi in 1950).
The locomotives also came equipped with the very latest in steam
technology such as roller bearings on all rods and axles, which greatly
reduced wear and friction.
Being used in passenger service the N&W gave its original five Js
a beautiful streamlining with a front, bullet-shaped nose and clean
sheathing over the boiler with a tender that likewise matched the
locomotive. The railroad's second group of Js did not originally
feature streamlining but they, too, would later receive such. In all
the N&W would come to own some fourteen Class J 4-8-4s with Norfolk and Western 611 part of the final three built in 1950. For more information about N&W's Js please refer to the chart below.
Norfolk & Western's J Class 4-8-4s
Perhaps most impressive the N&W's J Class with the precision with
which they were built. The locomotives had been engineered so well with
their counterbalancing nearly perfect that they could easily reach
speeds of 90 mph on the N&W's rugged main line. However, after
World War II N&W #610 performed and even more impressive feat. When
tested on the Pennsylvania Railroad's Fort Wayne Division, the
railroad's flat and straight main line through Indiana, the locomotive
reached speeds over 110 mph! Unfortunately, Norfolk and Western 611 and her sister Js had a relatively short operating life carrying the railroad's most prestigious trains like the Powhatan Arrow, Pocahontas, and Cavalier.
By the 1950s the N&W was testing diesel locomotives and even with
all of the efficiencies that railroad was able to achieve with steam,
operating diesels was still more efficient even though it did require
more of them to pull a train. By the late 1950s most of the N&W's
steam fleet had been retired.
If it was not for the efforts of preservationists and Mr. O. Winston Link, all of the N&W's Js
would likely have been scrapped. As a gesture of goodwill Norfolk and
Western 611 was donated to the Virginia Museum of Transportation in
Roanoke in 1960. Here, this machine of precision engineering
sat for more than 20 years on static display until the N&W
contemplated a steam program in the early 1980s, just prior to its
merger into Norfolk Southern. Then president Robert Claytor, brother to
the Southern's former president W. Graham Claytor, gave the go ahead to
lease N&W 611 from the museum in 1981 for a complete overhaul.
Work was completed at the Southern's Norris Yard Steam Shop in
Birmingham, Alabama and N&W 611 was again under steam in 1982, the
same year N&W and Southern disappeared into Norfolk Southern. The
4-8-4 was used much in the same manner as Union Pacific's #844 and #3985
as part of that railroad's steam program, for promotional events and in
general excursion service. In 1987 Norfolk and Western 611 was joined
by sister #1218, a 2-6-6-4 articulated locomotive that was built in 1943
by the N&W (as part of its Class A steamers) for use in regular freight service.
With now two large steam locomotives in its program the Norfolk Southern was a celebrity
in the railfan community and a fascination to the general public when
the steamers appeared in operation on excursions or fan trips. However,
the NS steam program was sadly short-lived. Norfolk and Western 611 had
the unfortunate luck of having cars
in its train derail twice, once in the spring of 1986 and again in the
fall of 1994. No one was killed in either accident but with rising insurance costs NS management decided to end the program shortly thereafter.
Interestingly, sister #1218 was having overhaul work performed
when the decision was made, so she was literally thrown back together and returned to
Roanoke to be put on display with the #611, where today both remain.
Interestingly, Norfolk Southern again decided to restart its steam
program in the summer of 2010 using locomotives (leased) from the Tennessee
Valley Railroad Museum (two Southern steamers, a 2-8-2 and 2-8-0 along with a former
Army 2-8-0). After this announcement many long wondered if either #1218 or #611 would be a part of this new program. The idea of operating #1218 is unlikely, at best, due to its current condition and being partially gutted inside, missing many components (resulting from the never-completed overhaul).
N&W J Class #611 pulls an eastbound excursion across the Cattaraugus Creek near Irving, New York on August 11, 1984.
However, the long-awaited idea of operating #611 came to light on
February 22, 2013 when the Virginia Museum of Transportation announced
that it had created the Fire Up 611 Committee to launch a
feasibility study to look at potentially operating the locomotive once
more. The panel is made up of some
of the best minds from the railroad industry, preservation, and steam
locomotive fields. After three months of study it was determined that the full restoration of #611 would move forward. The museum projects the plan will cost $3.5 million for the locomotive's overhaul and construction of a permanent maintenance shop facility. The hope was to have the necessary funds in place by October 31, 2013 with the full restoration requiring another six months and the locomotive operating by 2014. Funding for the maintenance shop could not be secured in time but the locomotive will be fully operational as of 2015. To learn more about the current phase of the project please click here to visit the new Fire Up 611 website.