The Electro-Motive Division's SD40 and SD40-2 have become icons, even in
their own time! So successful was the series that one can spot them
virtually any place on practically any given train (Class Is included),
even today, nearly 30 years after the last SD40-2 rolled off of the
assembly line! The only other EMD models
that were as successful were the first-generation, four-axle GP7 and
GP9. When the company first released the SD40 in 1966 railroads were
not only seeing the economical advantage gained with six-axle
locomotives but also understood that more powerful diesels meant fewer
units need per train, thus operating costs decreased. The later SD40-2
was part of EMD's new "Dash 2" line and sparked a firestorm of sales
that kept it in production nearly 15 years. While there are a few SD40s
officially preserved so many remain in use that there is little need to
visit a museum to see one; simply go trackside and wait for one to pass
Nearly new Burlington Northern SD40-2s #940 (note its Colorado & Southern markings, which was still technically a subsidiary at the time) and #6747 along with a GE unit and other power layover in East St. Louis on July 31, 1977.
other locomotive to date save for the earlier GP7 and GP9 has been as
tremendously successful as the SD40 series, and the two models virtually
became the face of EMD and what the locomotive builder stood for and
represented. The model also became the standard of the industry during
their time of production and because so many were built and still roam
all over the country, for the most part this still holds true today,
even while wide-cab units, particularly General Electric models
proliferate. In many ways, the SD40 was the final curtain all for
Electro-Motive as by the very late 1980s GE overtook the company as
leader of locomotive manufacturing and continues to hold that title even today.
The SD40 series began production in 1966 with the SD40, which was built
through 1972 and ended production in 1986 when the last SD40-2 rolled
off of the assembly line. When the series debuted it was just what
railroads were after. Looking for a more powerful, reliable and gritty
locomotive that could be counted on to work
properly in almost any type of weather conditions the SD40 and SD40-2
were it. Rated at 3,000 hp, equipped with EMD’s standard cab design,
and a C-C layout (meaning they had six axles) the units carried EMD's
16-cylinder 645E3 diesel engine and high-traction truck. Extremely
reliable the prime mover was
loved by maintenance and shop crews and even many engineers have said
the locomotive itself is a joy to operate as it experiences very little
problems when in service.
Kansas City Southern SD40s #626 and #629 along with SD40-2 #667 head up a southbound manifest freight through rural Lanagan, Missouri on September 24, 1983.
The original EMD SD40 offered railroads tractive effort ratings of
92,000 pounds starting and 82,000 pounds continuous, not particularly
different from what the earlier SD38 series included. The later SD40-2
released in January, 1972 offered the same tractive effort ratings.
Perhaps the biggest external difference between the SD40 and SD40-2 was
the frame itself. The SD40 has a length of 65 feet, 9 inches whereas
the SD40-2’s 68 foot, 10 inch frame is clearly noticeable with
protruding platforms on the front and rear of the locomotive (sometimes
called “porches”). While the SD40 is considered very successful itself
what made the SD40-2 the best selling locomotive of the
second-generation class was its additional upgraded features, which
included things like electronics, an oblong water-level sight glass and
bolted battery boxes just to name a few.
Grand Trunk Western SD40 #5927 sits next to a Chessie System Geep at the yard in Walbridge, Ohio during July of 1988.
The purpose behind the extra length of the SD40-2 was actually in
regards only to the trucks. As part of EMD's new "Dash 2" line the
model not only included new features such as a new type of traction
motor blower duct, a modular electronic cabinet system, and bolted battery box
access doors but also offered the new HT-C truck developed by the
company in 1970, which replaced the older Flexicoil design. Its added
length required the frame to be longer on each end, thus the creation of
the "porches". In essence the new HT-C truck offered by shock
absorbers to improve the ride and wear of the axles and traction motors
as well as introduced a better way to house the motors themselves.
Interestingly, when Conrail ordered there SD40-2s, and even SD50s, they
asked the units be equipped with the older Flexicoil due to issues with
the HT-C that were later dispelled.
Aside from general features like dynamic brakes and turbocharging
(a feature that EMD had only begun adding to its locomotives with the
SD24 of the late 1950s, the SD40 featured an airtight hood that kept out
dust, dirt, and other particles from reaching internal components (to
cool these critical components the SD40 featured a single air intake for
electrical cooling, with a pressurized cooling system). This was
another recent development first featured on the earliest
second-generation models like the GP20 and GP30. By the time
production ended on the SD40 series an astronomical 5,200+ units had
been built! Most of these were SD40-2s as just under 4,000 were
produced during its fourteen years of production while the SD40 chipped
in another 1,200+.
Chicago & North Western SD40-2 #6816 totes Union Pacific caboose #25604 through Chicago on June 24, 1977. Nearly 20 years later the C&NW would be merged into the UP.
There were numerous variations of the SD40 series constructed due to its
enormous success. These models include the SDP40 which was built for
passenger service and featured a steam generator.
Unstable at high speeds Amtrak operated the locomotives for only a few
years before replacing them. Another was the SD40A, which at 70 feet, 8
inches was longer (built from an SDP45 frame) to accommodate a 5,000
gallon fuel tank. All eighteen were purchased by Illinois Central.
There was also the test model SD40X (hence the "X"), also known as an
SD35X. The experimental unit featured EMD's then new 645 prime mover
and was essentially the birth of the SD40, using the frame of the SD35.
Five were constructed between 1965 and 1966, all purchased by the
Kansas City Southern.
Another experimental design was the SD40-2S built in the spring of 1978.
It was meant to provide more power by featuring a larger turbocharger
and larger 645E3 engine block. Just nine were built and purchased by
the Burlington Northern and Union Pacific. The most successful variant
was the SD40T-2 constructed between June, 1974 and July, 1980. Some 310
examples were sold to Denver & Rio Grande, Southern Pacific, and SP
subsidiary Cotton Belt for use in high altitude mountainous tunnel
service. The Espee had solved ventilation issues in tunnel operations
during the steam era with the Cab Forward design. However, nothing was
available in the diesel era until the "tunnel motors" were
released; first with the SD45T-2 of 1972 followed a few years later by the SD40T-2.
Katy SD40-2 #607 leads a long string of power as the locomotives have a piggyback freight at McAlester, Oklahoma as it passes the old coaling tower there during June of 1988.
EMD solved the ventilation issues and problems of the diesels
overheating by placing the radiator intakes and radiator fan grills to the rear
of the locomotive along the bottom of the carbody (to also pick up as
much fresh air as possible) and away from top of the locomotive where
all of the hot fumes exited. This redesign completely solved the issue
and the railroads no longer had serious problems with units overheating
when operating through long tunnels. A few other notable variants were
the SD40-2W, featuring a wide cab and the SD40-2F, which was another
wide cab variant featuring a cowl carbody.
Western Maryland SD40 #7575 (one of the last units to receive the WM's Speed Lettering livery) leads a Chessie System/C&O SD40 and GP30 as the units work hard to pull an eastbound coal drag up grade at Hinton, West Virginia on May 29, 1982.
Both of these locomotives were purchased only by the Canadian lines, the former for the Canadian National
(123, numbered 5241-5363) and the latter for Canadian Pacific (25,
numbered 9000-9024). All were built by the General Motors Diesel
division in London, Ontario. All other variants of SD40s you may run
across are rebuilds that were not factory-direct designs (such as the
SD40-3 that features upgraded electronics). While one day the SD40s will slowly begin to disappear I think
one can safely say that they will be around for years to come so just
keep an eye out and you can routinely spot one in active service one
Class Is, regionals and short lines.