If you come across one riding along within a train do not be surprised to see its sides bowed outwards from all of the heavy loads
dropped into it over the years. Likewise, gondolas are rarely ever
maintained any more than they have to be, which usually means that as
long as their bearings, truck assemblies, knuckle couplers, and
air-hoses work properly little more is ever done with them (meaning they
usually turn into rust buckets except for the reporting marks which
must be visible). However, gons are also one of the most versatile of
railroad cars, being used for everything from carrying junk and scrap metal to new rails, steel coils, and other commodities.
The gondola’s humble beginnings date back to essentially the beginning
of our country’s railroads themselves around 1830, being first used on
early tramways and railways to haul coal. Throughout the years the car,
like all of its other companion types has grown longer, stronger and
even specialized to more efficiently move differing kinds of material.
Today the standard gondola, resembling a flatcar with low sides,
generally measures somewhere in the range of 50 feet with a capacity of
near 100 tons. For instance, today one can find all different kinds of
gondola types. Some gons look nearly like boxcars but have open tops
and are commonly used for lightweight materials like woodchips. Others
have hatched tops to cover goods from the outside weather, and some even
appear as the common hopper car which typically carries coal.
|In this rather peculiar move two F7As and a string of first-generation Geeps tote a single gondola loaded with steel through a grade crossing at Waukegan, Illinois during April of 1962. The author notes that this is actually a local freight setting out the car for a local customer.|
One of the first noticeable changes to the design occurred in 1905 when
the Ralston Steel Car Company of Columbus, Ohio came up with a
drop-bottom system with outward chutes that allowed the floor
to be manually opened and use the force of gravity to quickly and
efficiently remove the car's contents, which would disperse to the
sides. Many railroads found this to be useful in a wide range of
applications, such as in maintenance-of-way service operating as a
ballast cars, which could dispense the stone to the sides of the rails.
Today, gondolas designed this way are still used in such a fashion.
During the second-half of the 20th century a similar version to this
design came into use, the "Bathtub" gondola.
|Duluth, Winnipeg & Pacific RS11 #3605 pulls two gondolas and a caboose near rural Virginia, Minnesota, probably as part of a work train, on August 22, 1966.|
This version employs wide, bottom "belly" doors that can be opened to
immediately dispense their contents. Railroads found this design
useful in coal service since the car could carry more product than the hopper
(which is built with chutes within the structure for unloading) and yet
still quickly be unloaded. Today, this gondola has become nearly as
common as the hopper. Gons are sometimes mistaken for hopper cars. The reason that the car is still classified as a gondola is because it does not have angled drop-bottom hatches or chutes like open-top hopper
cars (if gons are being used to haul coal they are usually emptied all
at once by being tipped upside down or having their load immediately
emptied from their 90-degree drop-bottom hatches). In other words, hoppers
contain some type of angled or sloped drop-bottom chutes, which use the
force of gravity to quickly unload their cargo without having to tilt
or turn the car upside down in any way.
Other versions of the gondola that can techincally be classified
as such due to their very design includes the coil car, used to haul
large sheets of rolled steel (which typically are covered to remain out
of the elements) and the well car, which has a depressed center and low
sides to haul one or two intermodal ship containers. In recent years
this car has become particularly in high demand due to the explosion
in this market. While the original gondola design will likely always
retain their image as the least respected of all railroad freight cars
roaming our nation’s rails, they will also likely always retain their
important function for the railroads by hauling either scrap metal and
junk or dense bulk materials and general merchandise. Whatever its use may be on a day-to-day basis the gondola certainly will not be retired anytime soon.
|An elderly Penn Central gondola soldiers on in maintenance service years after the carrier went under. The car is seen here tied down in Charlotte, North Carolina on April 12, 2006.|
For more reading about gondolas consider the book, Freight Train Cars, from Mike Schafer, one of the leading authors covering all corners of the railroad industry (from its history to present day operations). The book gives an excellent general history and overview on all of the common freight car
types and if you are interested in learning more about them, or you are
simply looking to better understanding their history and development
you should very much enjoy Mr. Schafer’s book. If you're interested in
perhaps purchasing this book please visit the link below which will take
you to ordering information through Amazon.com, the trusted online shopping network.