The LIRR's earliest history dates back to April 25, 1832 when the Brooklyn & Jamaica Railroad Company was incorporated to connect Brooklyn and Jamaica, a distance of ten miles. Two years later in April of 1834 the Long Island Rail Road
Company was formed and took over the B&J in April of 1836. The
LIRR's main purpose was to build a rail-water route connecting New York City and Boston. Since engineers at the time believed that an all-terrain route between New York City and Boston was an impossibility the LIRR's route would stretch across Long Island and use ferry service between
Greenport, New York Stonington, Connecticut. From there the line would
continue through Providence, Rhode Island and finally reaching Boston.
In July of 1844 the route between Brooklyn and Greenport was opened and became quite popular with a trip of only 3 1/2 hours. Unfortunately, this was the extent of the LIRR's success. In 1850 the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad (the New Haven Railroad) opened its fast and efficient main line between Boston and New York, hugging the coast line most of the way. With an all-land route now open which was faster the LIRR's water-rail service the New Haven Railroad's line was favored by travelers thus causing the former railroad to fall into bankruptcy.
To find any kind of success the LIRR knew it must focus on gaining local traffic, in this case building lines that connected all of Long Island's largest cities and towns. After the LIRR came under the direction of Austin Corbin in 1880 it was able to reach its largest size. It completed a second main line hugging the southern coastline of the Atlantic Ocean, which reached the eastern town of Montauk. Branches also sprung up connected such communities as Port Jefferson, Oyster Bay, Port Washington, Long Beach, Far Rockaway and Hempstead.
Then, in 1901 the LIRR came under the control of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The reason for PRR ownership was because the Pennsy planned to build a grand station (Pennsylvania Station) in downtown Manhattan and wanted the LIRR lines to serve the suburbs and towns surrounding NYC from this central station. And so a new era for the LIRR came into being whereby under PRR direction the railroad was heavily upgraded with new equipment, a heavier physical plant, portions electrified and grade crossings removed. Unfortunately, PRR control did not last. After passenger train traffic began to take a serious hit following World War II the Pennsy relinquished control of the LIRR and in 1949 fell into bankruptcy with its assets under the direction of the American Contract and Trust Company.
In one of the few instances of public awareness of railroad
importance prior to the 1980s, the State of New York realized the need of the LIRR for transportation on Long Island and NYC
began to subsidize the railroad in the 1950s. Then, worried the
railroad may be totally abandoned the Metropolitan Transportation
Authority purchased the LIRR in 1966 taking over all operations of the
Since then the LIRR has had little worry of abandonment or closure as it is a very important transportation artery for Long Island and New York City
and the thousands of commuters that depend on it daily.
Diesel Locomotive Roster
The American Locomotive Company
The Baldwin Locomotive Works
electric operations are all third-rail, which is why, if you have
noticed, there is no overhead catenary located anywhere along the
system. The railroad also continues to operate the famous Cannonball passenger train, which serves the Hamptons and operates during the warmer months between May and September. The railroad also always had a small freight operation serving
the handful of industries located on the island. After 1997 freight
services were contracted out to the New York & Atlantic Railway,
which continues to this day (the NY&A uses its own freight cars and
locomotives but is allowed use of the LIRR's shops and maintenance
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Long Island Rail Road