The Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad:  The Rebel Route


Similar to the Chessie System in the east the Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad of the Midwest and South was a short-lived line whose legend continues to live on today. The GM&O wasn’t created until the early days of diesel power (although its predecessors dated to the 19th century) and it was gone by the early 1970s. However, during its roughly 40 years of operation it was a fierce competitor and although always surrounded by giants it held its own in many of the markets it served, which is not surprising as the railroad is also known as The Rebel Route.  Eventually, the GM&O would merge with its rival, the Illinois Central, forming the Illinois Central Gulf (which would later be renamed as just the Illinois Central).  Today, this system is part of the Canadian National.

Well into the Illinois Central Gulf era but yet to be repainted (or even patched) a set of GP38s lead a pig train through Kansas City, Missouri on June 2, 1985.

The GM&O  (or "Gee-Mo" as fans of the road often called it) was actually created to take control of the Gulf, Mobile & Northern and Mobile & Ohio railroads, two systems which had fascinating and interesting histories. The GM&N dates back to the mid-1910s when the New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago was reorganized, a railroad which connected Mobile, Alabama with Middleton, Tennessee. The M&O on the other hand was constructed in the late 19th century to connect the Gulf Coast with points north, in this case being St. Louis, Illinois and the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois.

Perhaps the most influential person in the creation of the GM&O was Issac Burton Tigrett. Tigrett got his first taste of railroads in 1911 and would come to run predecessor Gulf, Mobile & Northern after World War I (where at the age of just 26, he was named interim president). During his time as president of the GM&N he saw several improvements and growth of the railroad, such as the acquisition of the Birmingham & Northwestern Railway and a shortline in Tennessee. The GM&N would also lease the New Orleans & Great Northern Railroad, giving the railroad access to New Orleans.

Three ICG Geeps led by GP38-2 #9606 roll northbound near McComb, Mississippi with a set of coal hoppers during September of 1976.

Now serving most of the central southeast region the GM&O was interested in connecting and serving Chicago, which would give the railroad a direct north/south route, a rather odd arrangement being that most traffic flowed east/west. Regardless, after taking control of the Chicago & Alton in the latter 1940s the GM&O proved highly successful at competing for traffic in the markets it served.  The Chicago & Alton Railroad, later known as simply the Alton Railroad, dates back to 1847 with its earliest ancestor, the Alton & Sangamon Railroad created to connect Alton, along the Mississippi River with the state capital of Springfield. The railroad opened in 1852. 

While still wearing fading and rusty GM&O paint, this GP35 was privately owned by FSI Railcar of Mobile, Alabama when photographed on June 7, 2003 long after the road disappeared into the ICG.

Another ancestor of the C&A was the Joliet & Chicago Railroad of 1855 which connected Joliet with Chicago. Both the J&C and A&S would come to be controlled by the Chicago & Mississippi Railroad, which connected Alton with Joliet. In 1857 the C&M was reorganized as the St. Louis, Alton & Chicago Railroad and five years later in October of 1862 it became the Chicago & Alton Railroad. At its peak the C&A connected Chicago with St. Louis to the south and Kansas City to the west.   In July of 1931 the C&A came under the control of the Baltimore & Ohio, giving the eastern trunk line a link to Kansas City as well as a north-south route between Chicago and St. Louis. Under B&O control the railroad was renamed the Alton Railroad Company.


The B&O saw little financial gain from the control of the Alton and sold the railroad to the GM&O in May of 1947 giving the railroad a direct north-south line between Chicago and New Orleans.   Aside from the GM&O’s maverick attitude the railroad is also well known for a number of its passenger trains including the Gulf Coast Rebel, the Alton Limited, and the Midnight Special. Its most famous trains, however, were the Rebel, Abraham Lincoln, and Ann Rutledge (which continues today under Amtrak). These trains carried a beautiful livery of two-tone maroon/red with yellow trim.

Rebuilt from first generation GP7s and GP9s purchased second-hand from other roads the ICG rostered many GP10s and GP11s that featured upgraded equipment. Seen here is GP11 #8734 at Central City, Kentucky on July 27, 1980 sporting a unique grey and orange livery that was never common on the railroad, although intended to wear better than the classic white and orange used for years.

The GM&O and its predecessors do hold "first" titles within the railroad industry. For example, the first Pullman sleeper was built in the C&A's Bloomington shops; one of the very first steel bridges was built on the C&A across the Mississippi River at Glasgow, Missouri; the C&A was one of the first railroads to use reclining chairs in its passenger trains. For all of the railroad’s accomplishments it was having trouble by the end of the 1960s and decided in 1972 to merge with the Illinois Central, after the two agreed that such a move would be best for both companies, to form the Illinois Central Gulf.

Diesel Locomotive Roster

The American Locomotive Company

Model Type Road Number Date Built Quantity
S210-24 (Ex-Alton Railroad), 1001-10121944-194627
DL-107270-27119402
DL-10927219431
PA1290-29119462
S1661-66419404
FA1700-7541946-194755
FB1B1-B331946-195033
FB2834-8371946-19554
RS11102-1117, 1120-1127, 1051-1055 (Ex-IT)1944-195029
RS21501-15141948-194914
RS31515-15231950-19539

Sandwiched in the middle of a northbound ICG train at Delrey, Illinois on January 4, 1981 is GM&O GP38 #733 which has yet to be repainted almost 10 years after the formation of the railroad.

The Baldwin Locomotive Works

Model Type Road Number Date Built Quantity
DR-6-4-2000280-28119472

The Electro-Motive Corporation/Electro-Motive Division

Model Type Road Number Date Built Quantity
EA/E8A100A (Ex-B&O, Rebuilt as an E8A in 1953.)19371
E7A100-103, 101A-103A (Ex-Alton)1945-19467
GP30500-5301962-196331
GP35601-6481964-196548
GP38701-720196920
GP38AC721-733197113
GP38-2740-554197215
F3A800A-811A, 800B-810B, 880A-885A, 880B-882B1946-194732
F3BB60-B64, B80-B8219478
F7A811B-812B, 812A-813A19494
F7BB65-B741949-195010
SD40901-921196621
SD40X95019641
Boxcab1200 (Ex-B&O/Alton #50)19351

GM&O RS1 #1106 is performing switching duties at Chicago Union Station on December 26, 1961. Note the Pennsylvania Railroad's massive freight depot in the background.

Predecessor Steam Locomotive Rosters

Gulf, Mobile & Northern Steam Locomotives

Class Type Wheel Arrangement
12, 60Switcher0-6-0
37American4-4-0
40Atlantic4-4-2
70, 172Ten-Wheeler4-6-0
109Mikado2-8-2
201, 250Decapod2-10-0
425Pacific4-6-2

Mobile & Ohio Steam Locomotives

Class Type Wheel Arrangement
6, 10, 11, 15, 30, 40Switcher0-6-0
121, 201, 220, 230, 237, 300, 310, 325Ten-Wheeler4-6-0
250, 260Pacific4-6-2
400, 450Mikado2-8-2

Notable Passenger Trains

Alton Limited: (Chicago - St. Louis)

Abraham Lincoln: (Chicago - St. Louis)

Ann Rutledge: (Chicago - St. Louis)

Gulf Coast Rebel: (St. Louis - Mobile/Montgomery)

Midnight Special: (Chicago - St. Louis)

Night Hawk: (St. Louis - Kansas City)

Prairie State Express: (St. Louis - Chicago)

The Mail: (Chicago - St. Louis)

The Rebel:  (Jackson, Tennessee - Union, Mississippi/New Orleans/Mobile)


An A-B-A set of GM&O F3s, led by F3A #807-B, hustle a manifest freight through Odell, Illinois on the evening of August 15, 1965.

The only problem with the ICG merger was that much like the disastrous Penn Central in the late 1960s, the IC and GM&O mostly paralleled one another and were staunch competitors. Because of this the success of the merger has often been debated. In any event, the ICG would soldier on and later drop the Gulf and was simply known as the Illinois Central once more. The IC’s end came in 1998 when it became part of the Canadian National Railway. While the Gulf Mobile and Ohio is no more its legacy certainly lives on in its tenacious spirit, Chicago to St. Louis main line (a major corridor, especially for Amtrak), and the Ann Rutledge which continues to be operated by Amtrak.

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