At the turn of the 20th century the N&W's modern system, prior to postwar mergers, was essentially in place. At its peak size it consisted of just over 2,100 route miles, relatively small for a Class I carrier even then. Its total trackage, as of 1947, consisted of 4,543 miles. It stretched from the tidewater port area of Norfolk/Portsmouth, Virginia to Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio, which covered a distance of 663 miles. While the N&W did move a variety of freight ranging from agriculture to merchandise, black diamonds were its mainstay. While it is recognized for moving coal shipments predominantly eastbound from "Tipple to Tidewater" some of this traffic was also handled through its Midwestern gateway at Columbus. According to Mike Schafer’s book, “Classic American Railroads – Volume III,” even during the early 1980s, just prior to the merger with the Southern, coal still comprised over 60% of its annual tonnage. It was so wealthy the company had paid an annual dividend since 1901 and continued to do so for decades. Such prosperity was common through the 1920s but rare after the stock market crash in October of 1929. Many railroads struggled through the 1930s, but not the N&W.
The Electrified Territory
When the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway in 1959 it inherited a road that was largely electrified west of Roanoke, Virginia. However, the Roanoke Road had operated its own section of energized territory for some time. In 1913 the railroad embarked upon an electrification program to overcome the stiff grades on Elkhorn Mountain, west of Bluefield, West Virginia. Moving heavy freight over this stretch required the use of many 2-6-6-2 (Z-1) compound Mallets. As Mr. Grubb's article notes the N&W worked with Westinghouse to implement the electrification, eventually opening 36.18 miles from Bluefield to Farm (near Vivian) in 1914. The system carried 11,000 volts at 25hz with substations located at Bluefield, Vivian, Maybeury, and North Fork. Big boxcabs, classed as LC-1 (twelve units) and LC-2 (four additional units picked up in 1925) were tasked with moving the trains. The primary power plant was situated at Bluestone, West Virginia. As coal demand spiked during World War I the system was extended 16.23 miles to Iaeger. Altogether, the main line here was energized across 52.41 miles. There were also an additional 17 miles of coal branches electrified. After World War II the N&W carried out a nearly $12 million capital improvement program to eliminate the grades by constructing a 5-mile, double-tracked bypass. It opened on June 26, 1950 and the electrics were retired shortly thereafter.
The company's exemplary management wisely invested surplus income into the railroad's physical plant. Mr. Grubb notes that by the late 1940's, 72% of its network had been laid with heavy, 130-pound rail or greater. In addition, key corridors were double-tracked, terminals were modernized, classification yards expanded, new steam designs developed, and by 1958 it boasted 46.7% of its network protected by Centralized Traffic Control (CTC). The rest was guarded with automatic block signals according to Frank Shaffer's article, "Stuart Saunders And His Moneymaking Machine" from the February, 1963 issue of Trans Magazine. "Precision Transportation" was not just a slogan, the company lived by this creed on a daily basis. During 1959 the N&W began the first of several takeovers by acquiring the nearby Virginian Railway. This pesky little road was equally wealthy and electrified west of Roanoke. It competed for the same coal that also shipped eastward to Norfolk. In the 1960s its portfolio grew three-fold when it picked up the small Atlantic & Danville (1962), much larger Nickel Plate Road (1964) and Wabash (1964). Finally, former interurban Illinois Terminal was added in 1981.
O. Winston Link
Ogle Winston Link, more commonly known as O. Winston Link, was a famous professional photographer who eloquently captured the last days of steam on the Norfolk & Western. He began his career shortly after graduation from Polytechnic Institute in Brooklyn, New York. Always carrying a great interest in railroads he captured his first night scene of N&W operations near Waynesboro, Virginia on January 21, 1955. Over the next few years, Link took hundreds of photos featuring N&W's last days of steam. While an adept day photographer he became particularly famous for his dramatic night shots, which sometimes required hours of preparation and a single chance to get it right. The trains, particularly the locomotives, were usually the focal point but not always. One of his most famous pieces was entitled "Hotshot Eastbound" as an A Class 2-6-6-4 speeds behind a drive-in theater in Iaeger, West Virginia as folks enjoy the picture. This was typical of Link's work which often invoked the human element alongside these great machines of commerce. Over the years there have been many books showcasing his photography. Link passed away on January 30, 2001. Today, you can also see his work at the O. Winston Link Museum in Roanoke, Virginia.
The Steam Fleet
Within the industry and among historians the N&W is widely recognized for its use of steam power. The company was arguably better at designing and building the locomotives than even noted manufacturers like Baldwin and the American Locomotive Company (Alco). The fabled Roanoke Shops rolled out hundreds over the years with such classic designs as the 4-8-4 "J," 2-6-6-4 "A," and 2-8-8-2 "Y." The railroad was relentless in its pursuit of power and efficiency, doing whatever it could to squeeze out further improvements. In the postwar years the Shops were still rolling out new units even as many counterparts retired theirs in favor of diesels. As the company perfected the technology new maintenance facilities were constructed to quickly overhaul locomotives (notorious for their maintenance-intensive nature). One of the most interesting was the "Lubritorium." Unique to the N&W these small structures swiftly serviced steamers for their next assignment. The railroad became so adept at the practice motive power could be turned and ready to go within an hour!
Steam remained in regular service until the mid-1950s, which signaled its technological peak. No other system operated such advanced designs as the Roanoke Road. Its locomotives carried such features as roller-bearings on all axles, high capacity boilers, superheaters, and automatic lubricators. The big 2-8-8-2 compounds (Y's) handled the heavy drag assignments, muscling over the mountainous territory on the Pocahontas Division while 2-6-6-4's (A's) could speed time freights up to 70 mph on gentler grades. These latter units could also work duel assignments in passenger service. Finally, the powerful 4-8-4's (J) and their smaller counterparts, 4-8-2's (K), generally handled the passenger trains although these locomotives could handle freight work as well. The N&W reluctantly began purchasing diesels in 1955 when the first GP9's arrived on the property (ironically, that same year the company unveiled its last new steamers when it outshopped a batch of 0-8-0 switchers). Despite president Robert H. Smith's love for the steamer and belief in the motive power it simply could not compete against the diesel's operational efficiency. In addition, rising labor costs factored in as did the difficulty in locating components and spare parts.
The Final Years
Stuart Saunders, who replaced Smith in 1958, saw no use for the steam locomotive as Rush Loving, Jr. notes in his book, "The Men Who Loved Trains." Among his other initiatives he quickly purchased diesels and had completed the switch within a few years. The N&W's late era steam fleet was memorialized and captured on film prior to its retirement
by renowned photographer O. Winston Link. There have been many excellent and famous photographers throughout the years although Mr. Link is perhaps the most celebrated due to his subject matter and exquisite work. In addition to the mergers mentioned above, the N&W added the Delaware & Hudson and Erie Lackawanna on July 1, 1968 as part of an agreement which included them under the company name Dereco, Inc. The paper company was entirely a protective nature carried out by Roanoke to protect itself from the EL's fragile financial state. In a related corporate move the N&W had recently gained its independence when the Pennsylvania Railroad was forced to divest its holdings due to the impending merger with New York Central. Try as it might the EL, headed by N&W management, could not overcome its problems ranging from debt to a crumbling situation in the Northeast as Penn Central fell apart.
Diesel Locomotive Roster
The American Locomotive Company
|GP9||10-13, 506-521, 620-699, 714-914||1955-1959||301|
Steam Locomotive Roster
After Hurricane Agnes dealt heavy flooding to the region and forced EL into bankruptcy N&W sold off its interests in the railroad. For the Norfolk & Western its end began in 1980 when merger proceedings began with the nearby Southern Railway. They had been taken aback by the new CSX Corporation (of which the railroad arm became CSX Transportation) formed that year between Chessie System, Seaboard Coast
Line, and several smaller carriers. Now dwarfed by the new conglomerate the two carriers realized their best chance for survival was through merger. The union was approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1982. The newly created Norfolk Southern
Corporation today carries on the fine traditions set forth by its predecessors. The company is still renowned for its sound management and business practices. It continually ranks at the top of the industry in annual revenue and a low
operating ratio. During the 1990s another fight broke out between NS and CSX, this time for control of Conrail. In the end the two agreed to split Big Blue with NS gaining a 58% stake in the company.
Books Featured In This Article
Norfolk & Western