Alco "C-628" Locomotives

The Alco C628 was the builder's first in its line of six-axle, C-C road switchers. Overall these behemoths were as powerful as they appeared, which is perhaps ironically a significant reason why the American Locomotive Company (Alco) did not sell more of its six-axle Century line.

Perhaps most unfortunate was that Alco missed the high horsepower, six-axle market by just a few years as in the early 1970s GM's Electro-Motive Division released its SD40 series which to this day remains one of the most popular locomotive designs ever conceived.

In any event, the C628 would prove to be Alco's most successful six-axle Century, selling nearly 200 units.

Today, there are three C628's known to exist although none are located within the United States; Delaware & Hudson Railway #610 is located at the Yucatan Railroad Museum in Mexico along with Ferrocaril del Pacifico #606.  Additionally, Hammersly Iron #2000 is preserved by the Pilbara Railway Historical Society of Australia.

A company photo of C628 demonstrator #628-4, seen here at what appears to be Alco's famous plant in Schenectady, New York during 1964. The manufacturer built four C628 demonstrators, #628-1 through #628-4; all were purchased by Southern Pacific.

To counter GE’s new locomotive model, the Universal series, Alco debuted its Century series in the early 1960s. Once again, the Schenectady manufacturer was scrambling to try and keep up with the competition, which in the world of business is a very bad situation to find oneself in.

While GE's "U-Boats" were not that particularly successful either, given that EMD was not only the most trusted builder at the time but also releasing models that were simply far superior to everyone else, the one-time Alco ally was selling more of them than the Centuries.

The first of Alco's six-axle, C-C models was the C628; a powerful, clean design that unfortunately was much more successful with railfans (and still is) than railroads. 

Chicago & North Western acquired a batch of Norfolk & Western's C628's to work heavy ore trains out of Michigan. Here, a group lays over at Escanaba, Michigan in July, 1982. Roger Puta photo.

The Century series also brought out a new numbering system by Alco, replacing the straightforward symbols from before (“RS” for road-switcher, “PA” for passenger and A-unit, etc.) with letters and digits, something roughly similar to Baldwin’s numbering system.

With the C628, “C”, of course, stood for Century series, “6” was the axle number, and the last two digits were the horsepower rating. The Alco C628 debuted in late 1963 as a replacement for the builder's RSD-15 line.

Using Alco's tried in proven 251C model prime mover the C628 was rated at 2,750-2,800 horsepower and it, along with its successors became legendary for their ability to pull serious tonnage. Unfortunately, as powerful as they were railroads came to dislike them since they caused significant wear to the track structure.

This was particularly true for the Monon, which only used their C628s for a few years before selling the units. Ultimately, Alco sold fewer six-axle Centuries than it probably could otherwise have.

This closeup view of Lehigh Valley C628 #625 was taken of the unit at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania on August 5, 1974. The LV owned eight of these units, numbered 625-632. Doug Kroll photo.

Still, through the end of production in 1968 the C628 sold relatively well for the Century line producing 186 units for several Class I systems such as:

  • Atlantic Coast Line (11)

  • Louisville & Nashville (15)

  • Delaware & Hudson (18)

  • Lehigh Valley (8)

  • Monon (9)

  • Norfolk & Western (30)

  • Pennsylvania (15)

  • Southern Pacific (25)
One of Monon's recently delivered C628's, #402, is seen here at the yard in Hammond, Indiana on March 31, 1964. Their six-axle wheelbases were far too long to negotiate the Monon's network while their extreme weight had a tendency to spread the rails. In addition, their entire purpose was proved moot when the ICC refused the coal transfer project the railroad was attempting to launch between the Ohio River and Lake Michigan (Michigan City). They were returned to Alco in 1967 and later sold to the Lehigh Valley. Roger Puta photo.

Additionally, Australian firm Hammersley Iron purchased five, Ferrocaril del Pacifico picked up ten, and its Mexican counterpart National Railway of Mexico purchased 32. Alco also built four demonstrators, #628-1 to #628-4 all of which were picked up by the Southern Pacific.

Just as the builder would experience with its four axle Centuries most of the buyers for its C-C designs would be railroads already loyal to the company like the Lehigh Valley, D&H, and N&W as it could attract little new interest after early reliability issues continued to hamper sales.

A pair of Delaware & Hudson's big C628's and a U30C work hard climbing Belden Hill with an eastbound freight on its way to Oneonta, New York in May, 1976. Jerry Custer photo.

Strangely, even after GE entered the locomotive market itself and competed directly against Alco the company continued to purchase internal components from them.

Perhaps most ironic was that components  like GE's model GT586A4 main generator could be found in both Century and Universal models. In any event, the Alco C628 up to that time offered the most starting (85,750 pounds) and continuous tractive effort (79,500 pounds) of any locomotive in its class, which is a significant reason why some railroads really liked them. 

Alco C628 Data Sheet

Entered Production12/19/1963 (Atlantic Coast Line #2000)
Years Produced12/19/1963-12/1968
Model SpecificationDL628
Engine251C, V-16
Horsepower2,750
RPM1,050
Carbody StylingAlco
Length (Between Coupler Pulling Faces)69' 6"
Weight342,000 Lbs. (Optional ballasting available up to 408,000 Lbs.)
Dynamic BrakesOptional
TrucksC-C
Truck TypeTrimount
Truck Wheelbase12' 6"
Wheel Size40"
Traction MotorsGE 752 (6)
Traction GeneratorGT586
Gear Ratio74:18 (65 MPH), 81:22 (75 MPH)
Tractive Effort Rating79,500 Lbs. at 12 MPH
Top Speed75 MPH

Alco C628 Production Roster

Owner Road Number(s) Construction Number(s) Completion Date
Alco (Demo)628-1 thru 628-4 (Became Southern Pacific #4870-4873)S-3376-01 thru S-3376-045/1964
Atlantic Coast Line2000-200384899-8490212/19/1963
Atlantic Coast Line2004-2010S-3393-01 thru S-3393-0712/1964
Chihuahua al Pacifico (Mexico)901-904S-3474-01 thru S-3474-0412/1966
Delaware & Hudson601-609S-3373-01 thru S-3373-093/1964-5/1965
Delaware & Hudson610-618S-3407-01 thru S-3407-095/1965
Ferrocarril Del Pacifico (Mexico)601-606S-3452-01 thru S-3452-064/1964-5/1964
Ferrocarril Del Pacifico (Mexico)607-610S-6001-01 thru S-6001-0412/1968
Hamersley Iron (Australia)2000-2002S-3415-01 thru S-3415-036/1965
Hamersley Iron (Australia)2004-2005S-3482-01 thru S-3482-024/1967
Lehigh Valley625-631S-3427-01 thru S-3427-0711/1965
Lehigh Valley632S-3476-011/1967
Louisville & Nashville1400-1411S-3383-01 thru S-3383-127/1964-9/1964
Louisville & Nashville1412-1414S-3406-01 thru S-3406-034/1965
Monon400-40884903-849113/1964
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México8300-8309S-3475-01 thru S-3475-1012/1966-1/1967
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México8310-8321S-3496-01 thru S-3496-122/1968
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México8322-8331S-3495-01 thru S-3495-102/1968-3/1968
Norfolk & Western1100-1109S-3429-01 thru S-3429-1011/1965
Norfolk & Western1110-1129S-3455-01 thru S-3455-204/1966
Pennsylvania6300-6309S-3404-01 thru S-3404-103/1965
Pennsylvania6310-6314S-3434-01 thru S-3434-0511/1965-12/1965
Southern Pacific4845-4873 (Ex-Demo's #628-1 thru #628-4)S-3401-01 thru S-3401-253/1965-4/1965

Sources:

  • Foster, Gerald. A Field Guide To Trains. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996.

  • Kirkland, John F. Diesel Builders, The:  Volume Two, American Locomotive Company And Montreal Locomotive Works. Glendale: Interurban Press, 1989.

  • Pinkepank, Jerry A. Diesel Spotter's Guide.  Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Company, 1967.

  • Solomon, Brian. Alco Locomotives. Minneapolis: Voyageur Press, 2009.


American Locomotive's four C628 demonstrators, #628-1 through #628-4, circa 1964. All would be purchased by Southern Pacific.

This was especially the case with the Chicago & North Western, which purchased the N&W's 30 units in 1973 finding them quite useful employed in heavy ore service along its lines in northern Wisconsin and the UP of Michigan.

They last about 14 years on the C&NW before being retired in 1987.  The carbody design of the C628 carried the standard Century look of a long, flush hood and short nose ahead of the cab. The six-axle Centuries were massive locomotives, with the C628 weighing 204 tons and was more than 69-feet in length!   

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Header Photo: Drew Jacksich

SteamLocomotive.com

Wes Barris's SteamLocomotive.com is simply the best web resource in the study of steam locomotives. 

The amount of information found there is quite staggering; historical backgrounds of wheel arrangements, types used by virtually every railroad, preserved and operational examples, and even those used in other countries (North America and beyond). 

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Researching Rights-Of-Way

A popular pastime for many is studying and/or exploring abandoned rights-of-way. 

Today, there are tens of thousands of miles scattered throughout the country.  Many were pulled up in the 1970's and 1980's although others were removed long before that. 

If you are researching active or abandoned corridors you might want to check out the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Historical Topographic Map Explorer

It is an excellent resource with thousands of historic maps on file throughout the country.  Just type in a town or city and click on the timeline of maps at the bottom of the page!