Short lines, Where Customer Service Is Key!

Header Photo: Drew Jacksich

Short lines, whose designation by the Surface Transportation Board (STB) is a Class III carrier (which includes terminal and switching lines) make up the bulk of today's freight railroads.  According to the STB and American Short Line & Regional Railroad Association (ASLRRA) the 2016 definition of a short line is any earning an annual operating revenue less than $36.633 million. This figure is adjusted yearly, which factors inflation using the base year of 1991 according to the ASLRRA.  Class III's may be the smallest but they offer perhaps the greatest level of interest, hearkening back to an era when single car service was commonplace. This practice has been largely abandoned under Class I's which favor lucrative long haul, unit consists.  As a group short lines comprise nearly double the annual revenue, mileage, and employees of their larger counterpart, the regional  In addition, many are part of a large conglomerate such as Genesee & Wyoming, Watco, or OmniTRAX.

Warrenton Railroad 45-tonner #7 (built as U.S Navy #65-00104) is about to cross County Road 1322 in rural Warren Plains, North Carolina during a lazy summer's day in September of 1985. The historic line, which first opened in 1884, saw its final day of service on this particular afternoon having delivered a Seaboard System boxcar to the interchange in Warrenton. Warren Calloway photo.

The short line offers a good example of how railroading was performed more than a half-century ago.  While the caboose is gone, crew sizes reduced (conductor and engineer), foot-boards outlawed, and less-than-carload business a thing of the past the focus on customer service has remained steadfast.  These small carriers depend greatly upon their customers and you will find none other providing higher quality service than a short line.  A particular carrier may rely on a few precious annual carloads to make ends meet, unable to afford such a loss. In some cases a single customer will generate most, or all, of its yearly business. Such a situation occurred at the Elk River Railroad in West Virginia.  Operating on the former Baltimore & Ohio's Coal & Coke Branch, as well as the ex-Buffalo Creek & Gauley south of Gassaway it began operations in the mid-1990's to serve a coal mine.  Unfortunately, within a few years the mine closed and business abruptly stopped.  Now, more than a decade later, the Elk River survives largely by storing and repairing cars.  

Tacoma Rail SD40-3 #3001 (built as Penn Central SD45 #6237) rolls across a former Milwaukee Road bridge in Tacoma, Washington with a special excursion bound for Eatonville on June 23, 2011. Drew Jacksich photo.

Notable Short Lines

Toledo, Peoria & Western

RJ Corman Railroad Group 

Morristown & Erie

Ann Arbor Railroad

Belt Railway of Chicago 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City 

Chicago, South Shore & South Bend

Utah Railway

Short Lines By Region


Arcade & Attica 

Beech Mountain Railroad 

Elk River Railroad 

Grafton & Upton 

Little Kanawha River Railroad 

Livonia, Avon & Lakeville 

South Branch Valley 

West Virginia Central 

New Hope & Ivyland 


Aberdeen & Rockfish 

Aberdeen, Carolina & Western 

Apalachicola Northern 

Atlanta & St. Andrews Bay 

Columbus & Greenville 

De Queen & Eastern 

South Carolina Central 

Georgia Northeastern 

Georgia Southwestern 

Pickens Railway 

Chesapeake & Albermarle 

Lancaster & Chester 

Pinsly Company 

Sandersville Railroad 

St. Marys Railroad 


Arkansas & Missouri 

Indiana Harbor Belt 

Iowa Traction 

Lake Superior & Ishpeming 

Indiana & Ohio 

Ohio Central 

Alton & Southern 

Iowa Northern 

Illinois & Midland 

Sand Springs Railway 

Tulsa-Sapulpa Union 

Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis 


Black Mesa & Lake Powell 

Arizona & California 

Fort Worth & Western 

Apache Railway 

Dallas, Garland & Northeastern 


Copper Basin Railway 

Pecos Valley Southern Railway 

Trona Railway 

Modesto & Empire Traction 


Butte, Anaconda & Pacific 

Port of Tillamook Bay 

Idaho, Northern & Pacific 

Eastern Idaho Railroad 

Red River Valley & Western 

Twin Cities & Western 

St. Maries River Railroad

Defunct Lines

Ashley, Drew & Northern 

Belfast & Moosehead Lake Railroad

Camas Prairie Railroad 

Chesapeake Western Railway 

Copper Range Railroad 

Durham & Southern 

Erie Western Railway 

Frankfort & Cincinnati 

Lake Erie, Franklin & Clarion 

Magma Arizona 

McCloud River Railroad 

Montour Railroad 

North Louisiana & Gulf 

Pittsburg & Shawmut 

Quanah, Acme & Pacific, "The Quanah Route" 

Rahway Valley 

Reader Railroad 

Roscoe, Snyder & Pacific 

St. Johnsbury & Lamoille County 

Texas-Mexican Railway 

Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo 

Virginia Blue Ridge Railway 

Wellsville, Addison & Galeton 

West Virginia Northern 

By contrast there are large systems operating several hundred miles that nearly achieving Class II status. These include names like RJ Corman; Iowa Northern; Twin Cities & Western; and Livonia, Avon & Lakeville.  There are also those which have historic connections dating back a century or more like the Indiana Harbor Belt (a Chicago belt line), St. Marys Railroad, Utah Railway, and Ann Arbor (Michigan's reborn survivor). The bottom line is you can find Class III's of all shapes and sizes.   Some railfans have become resentful of Genesee & Wyoming, a conglomerate which has spent the last few decades amassing a wealth of once-independent short lines, including one-time rival RailAmerica.  However, it has been extremely successful; so successful in fact that no railroad under its control has either failed or been sold.  The company began humbly as a small short line incorporated in 1891, the Genesee & Wyoming Valley Railway.   The G&WV opened in 1894 from Retsof to a location known as P&L Junction near Caledonia (14 miles).  It was reorganized as the Genesee & Wyoming in 1899.  

Apache Railway's famous Alco's darken the skies as C424 #99 leads its freight atop the hill at Elkins Ranch, Arizona on August 30, 2012. Drew Jacksich photo.

The railroad remained unchanged for more than 70 years until new ownership in 1977 formed Genesee & Wyoming Industries, which branched out into the rail car leasing and management business.   In 1986 it picked up its first short line subsidiary when Chessie System sold off much of the old Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh property in western New York and Pennsylvania; renamed under G&W as the Buffalo & Pittsburgh.  Since then the company has expanded prodigiously, acquiring railroads where potential is recognized.  At the present time it operates ten different North American regions (Pacific, Mountain West, Central, Coast, Southern, Midwest, Ohio Valley, Coastal, Northeast, and Canada), boasts a Europe Region, and maintains two operations in Australia ("Genesee & Wyoming Australia" and "Freightliner Australia").   The success of short lines/regionals in the post-1980 era has been unquestioned, preserving many corridors which would have otherwise been abandoned.  This has left analysts and industry experts to conclude that shedding so much infrastructure during the 1970s and 1980s was a severe overreach despite the industry's troubles during that time.

Aberdeen & Rockfish GP38 #405 leads a short freight near Rockfish, North Carolina on November 8, 2005. Warren Calloway photo.

Locomotives comprise another interesting aspect of the short line phenomenon.  If you have an interest in classic designs they abound on these railroads; anything from little switchers like General Electric 44-tonner's and American Locomotive S-1's to Electro-Motive's line of GP7's and SD9's. All of these date to the 1950's or earlier and can still be found working revenue service.  Interestingly, even the Chicago & North Western continued maintaining a fleet of GP7's into the 1990's, a testament to the model's longevity and durability.   In some cases, a short line, for a variety of reasons, actually prefers a particular design or manufacturer's build.  Take, for example, the Livonia, Avon & Lakeville in New York which rosters an all-Alco road-switcher fleet (C425's, C424's, RS3's, RS36's, etc.) or the SMS Rail Lines roster of rare Baldwin units ( VO-660, VO-1000, DS-4-4-660, DS-4-4-1000, DS-4-4-750, S12, and AS616).   Even today, new Class III's continue springing up like the once-dormant, historic Grafton & Upton, in Massachusetts.  

A pair of classic Winchester & Western RS11's roll through the four-lane Route 50 crossing at Hayfield, Virginia with the "Sand Man" on July 10, 1992. Wade Massie photo.

"Regional" And "Short Line" Railroad Statistics

220 Railroads (1980, Pre-Staggers Act): 470 Railroads (1990, Post-Staggers Act) 

More Than 560 Railroads (Current)

27 Holding Companies Control Nearly 270 Short Lines/Regionals

17,800 Employees (10% Of Industry Total)

43,260 MIles (31% Of Industry Total)

Current And Future Capital Infrastructure Needs: $6.9 Billion

Sources:, Federal Railroad Administration

Industry Facts & Figures


Class I



















Revenue (Billions)





Source: Federal Railroad Administration's "Summary Of Class II and Class III Railroad Capital Needs And Funding Source" Report (October, 2014)

Shenandoah Valley Railroad GP9 #5940 along with an original Chesapeake & Ohio caboose are seen here tied down for the evening on April 22, 2019. Jon Wright photo.

The short line concept is not new.  There have been many famous carriers dating back to the pre-Staggers era such as the bucolic Maryland & Pennsylvania, Colorado's Great Western Railway, fabled Virginian & Truckee, and little Virginia Central.  There were also numerous belt lines and terminal roads (many subsidiaries or larger railroads) such as the Baltimore & Ohio Chicago Terminal, Portland Terminal, Belt Railway of Chicago, Peoria & Pekin Union, and Davenport, Rock Island & North Western.  However, only since the industry's deregulation have their numbers more than doubled.   So, if you get the chance be sure and see one in action. While watching a container train on a Class I zipping across the Heartland is always thrilling, nothing can likewise beat a local line switching a local customer. If you want to see the human side of railroading, no one does it better than these small lines. To learn more about them please click here to visit the American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association's (ASLRRA) website. This member organization is similar in nature to the Association of American Railroads but geared towards smaller, non-Class I carriers. 

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