Baldwin "DS-4-4-1000" Locomotives

The Baldwin DS-4-4-1000, along with its DS-4-4-660 counterpart was meant to replace the earlier VO1000. While the model name was complicated enough Baldwin also built two versions of the DS-4-4-1000, which used different prime movers and ultimately resulted in being one of the company's most successful small switchers it ever cataloged.  Interestingly, Baldwin's more powerful designs sold relatively well while smaller switchers like the DS-4-4-600, VO-660, and DS-4-4-750 were not nearly as popular with railroads. Unfortunately, the company's switchers were its only bright spot during the diesel era.  Like rival American Locomotive, Baldwin struggled to produce a rugged and reliable road-switcher due to reliability issues. It was here where manufacturers made their money, locomotives aimed at daily freight service.  


The rigors required to produce such a machine were significant and only Electro-Motive proved very successful at such.  In later years General Electric would as well.  In the end, the mighty Baldwin Locomotive Works, a bastion of the railroad industry since its inception, exited the locomotive market in the 1950's after its acquisition by another company.

Erie Lackawanna DS-4-4-1000 #607 (built new as Erie #607 in June, 1948) lays over in Youngstown, Ohio on August 12, 1971. Roger Puta collection/photographer unknown.

The Baldwin DS-4-4-1000 followed its predecessor model the VO-1000 in 1946 originally using the company's 608NA prime mover which could produce 1,000 horsepower using a B-B truck arrangement (two axles per truck). Aside from the updated prime mover the model was virtually identical to the VO1000 with all internal components outsourced to Westinghouse and continued to carry a length of 48 feet, 10 inches. The only noticeable difference was the DS-4-4-1000's increased starting tractive effort of 72,000 pounds.  This first version of the model was built through January of 1951 and sold rather poorly as only 56 were ever built for a handful of Class I railroads (the Reading would come to own the most, 14).

Jersey Central DS-4-4-1000 #9241 lays over with other power the shops in Elizabeth, New Jersey on November 8, 1969. This unit began its career on the Baltimore & Ohio (as noted by the markings) and was transferred to the CNJ in January, 1970. Roger Puta photo.

However, the second version, which used the company's somewhat more reliable 606SC prime mover produced the same 1,000 horsepower while also offering turbocharging, the first ever Baldwin switcher to feature such an option. Interestingly, production on the updated DS-4-4-100 lasted only until November of the same year, 1951. However, in just 11 months Baldwin was able to sell some 446 DS-4-4-1000s to several Class Is (like the Union Pacific, Chicago & North Western, Reading, Seaboard, Frisco, B&O, and others), smaller railroads, and industries. This time, Baldwin also found interest in Canadian lines, notably the Canadian Pacific Railway. Once again, the company's best customer proved to be the Pennsylvania Railroad which bought 136 examples alone.

Chicago Great Western DS-4-4-1000 #38, one of ten the road acquired in 1949, is seen here at the Chicago Transfer Yards on August 14, 1962. Roger Puta photo.

As with the DS-4-4-750, the DS-4-4-1000 ended Baldwin's use of its dizzying classification system.  In its place, the builder introduced a more standard classification after 1951. For instance, the S-8 and S-12 models, which replaced the DS-4-4-750 and DS-4-4-1000, used the "S" to signify they were switchers and the numbers designated their horsepower rating, abbreviated (800 and 1,200 horsepower).  Because so many DS-4-4-1000s were built several are preserved today across the country including; AT&SF #2260, CP #7069, Katy #106, Oakland Terminal #101, and Reading #702.  Additionally, shortline SMS Lines, which fleets a large collection of Baldwins preferring their incredible ability to pull operations former Copper Range #101 and PRR #9069. Finally, for more information about the DS-4-4-1000s please refer to the chart below for a complete production roster.    

Baldwin DS-4-4-1000 Production Roster (608NA Prime Mover)

Owner Road Number(s) Quantity Date Built
Belt Railway Of Chicago40511947
Columbia-Geneva Steel Division (U.S. Steel)21-2661947
Copper Range Railroad100-10121947
Detroit Terminal10311947
Erie Railroad600-60121946
Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad (Katy)1000-1010111946-1947
Nickel Plate Road100-10121947
Norfolk Southern (Original)1001-100221947
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt/SP)1023-102751947-1948
Seaboard Air Line1417-142481946
Western Maryland133-13421946

(606SC Prime Mover)

Owner Road Number(s) Quantity Date Built
Akron & Barberton Belt Railroad2611948
American Smelting & Refining Company101-10221948-1950
Atlanta & West Point676-67721949
Baltimore & Ohio376-399, 438-462491948-1950
Bessemer & Lake Erie28211949
Calumet & Hecla Railroad201-20221948
Canadian Pacific7065-7075111948
Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation74-7631948
Central Of Georgia36-3721949
Central Railroad Of New Jersey (CNJ)1072-107431950
Chicago & North Western1018-102251949
Chicago Great Western32-41101949
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha (C&NW)99-10021949
Columbia-Geneva Steel Division (U.S. Steel)27-3261948
Erie Railroad602-616151948-1949
Georgia Railroad92111949
Ironton Railroad750-75121948-1949
Kentucky & Indiana Terminal Railroad53-5421948
Lehigh Valley140-14891949-1950
Long Island Rail Road45011948
Milwaukee Road1692-1697, 1901-1904101948-1949
Missouri Pacific9120-9127, 9133-9141171948-1949
Oakland Terminal10111948
Oliver Iron Mining Company928-93251949
Patapsco & Back Rivers Railroad337-34481948-1949
Pennsylvania5550-5590, 5967-5979, 9050-9079, 9122-9136, 9177-9183, 9251-9275, 9429- 94341271948-1950
Santa Fe2200, 2260-2299411948-1949
Soo Line311-31221949
St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico Railroad (MP)9148-9149, 9162-916781949-1950
St. Louis San Francisco Railway (Frisco)238-24141948
Seaboard Air Line1435-1461271950-1951
Southern Pacific1393-1402101948
Southern Railway2285-228951948
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis (TRRA)602-60321949
Union Pacific1206-121051948
U.S. Army Corp Of EngineersL-4, W-838021949-1950
Wabash Railroad30411949
Western Railway Of Alabama63011948

A pair of Pennsylvania DS-4-4-1000's rest between assignments at the Ivy City engine terminal in Washington, D.C. on January 14, 1966. Roger Puta photo.

For more information on Baldwin locomotives the book by the same name, a Brian Solomon title, provides an in-depth history of the company from its earliest days beginning in the 1930s to its final years constructing diesels during the mid-20th century.  It 160 pages in length and, as with every Solomon book, offers a rich collection of large, sharp photos to enjoy.  Another title of interest, also written by Mr. Solomon, is Vintage Diesel Power, which generally highlights several classic models from many of the noted builders of first-generation power such as Electro-Motive, Baldwin, and the American Locomotive Company.

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Header Photo: Drew Jacksich

Researching Rights-Of-Way

A popular pastime for many is studying and/or exploring abandoned rights-of-way.  Today, there are tens of thousands of miles scattered throughout the country.  Many were pulled up in the 1970's and 1980's although others were removed long before that.  If you are researching active or abandoned corridors you might want to check out the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Historical Topographic Map Explorer.  It is an excellent resource with thousands of historic maps on file throughout the country.  Just type in a town or city and click on the timeline of maps at the bottom of the page!

Studying Diesels

You will be hard pressed at finding a better online resource regarding diesel locomotives than Craig Rutherford's  The website contains everything from historic (fallen flags) to contemporary (Class I's, regionals, short lines, and even some museums/tourist lines) rosters, locomotive production information, technical data, all notable models cataloged by the five major builders (American Locomotive, Electro-Motive, General Electric, Fairbanks-Morse, and Baldwin), and much more.  A highly recommended database!

Electro-Motive Database

In 1998 a gentleman by the name of Andre Kristopans put together a web page highlighting virtually every unit every out-shopped by General Motors' Electro-Motive Division.  Alas, in 2013 the site closed by thankfully Don Strack rescued the data and transferred it over to his site (another fine resource).  If you are researching anything EMD related please visit this page first.  The information includes original numbers, serials, and order numbers.