1. Home
  2.  ›
  3. Diesel Locomotives
  4.  ›
  5. H20-44

FM "H20-44" Locomotives

Last revised: January 28, 2024

By: Adam Burns

The H20-44 was the most powerful switcher Fairbanks-Morse cataloged.  It was also powerful true switcher ever built at 2,000 horsepower.

In fact, the locomotive was so powerful that John Kirkland notes in his book, "The Diesel Builders: Fairbanks-Morse And Lima Hamilton," all of its 2,000 horses could not be used in a true switching capacity.

The only way to do so was by using the locomotive in a transfer or road-switcher capacity were it was operating in main line service.

While the H20-44 sold better than other FM models, overall its sale were only lukewarm. Few Fairbanks-Morse diesel locomotives were ever preserved but thankfully, three H20-44's were saved and are on display at various museums around the country.


19571757289875769826972662.jpgPittsburgh & West Virginia H20-44 #67 is seen here at Rook Yard (Pennsylvania) during the 1950s. Warren Calloway collection.


The H20-44 debuted in August, 1947 when it was featured at the AAR Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey alongside H15-44 #1500 and a pair of Erie-Built 'A' units.

FM was in such a rush to finish the H20-44 demonstrator, #2000, that paint crews had to finish the job on site!

The locomotive used the builder's standard 2-cycle 38D8 1/8 O-P prime mover (10 cylinders).

Additionally, it featured swing bolster, drop-side equalizer trucks with all internal electrical components outsourced from Westinghouse.

Aside from the high horsepower rating, the H20-44 featured a tractive effort rating of 42,800 pounds (at 14.7 mph) with 63:15 gearing.  No other gearing was optional on this unit.

At 51 feet in length it was somewhat shorter than either of FM's lightweight road-switcher models, the H15-44 and H16-44.

As was the case with most of FM's diesel locomotive models the company hired famed industrial designer Raymond Loewy to give the H20-44 fine lines and exterior features.

Finding such design features somewhat frivolous and doing little to boost sales, FM scrapped Loewy's recommendations in the model's latter years of production to save on construction costs.

In any event, Fairbanks-Morse apparently learned from the unsuccessful nature of the H20-44 and offered no future switcher-type models that included such a high horsepower rating.

Instead, in 1950 it released the H12-44 switcher that went on to become its most successful such design.

In regards to the model's classification system, it was more or less similar to what Baldwin used in its early diesel designs but was not quite as complicated in understanding.

For example, the H20-44's designation was as follows:

  • "H" stood for Hood unit

  • "20" was the horsepower rating

  • Each 4 meant four axles and four traction motors


When production had ended in March, 1954 the H20-44 had sold just 96 units to a handful of railroads. The Pennsylvania wound up with the most, 38 examples.

While FM locomotives were not the unreliable machines that is often portrayed in historical texts, the H20-44 was not an especially great design.

It was too powerful as as switcher and is why the H12-44 (at 1,200 horsepower) was much more suited for this role.  Interestingly, as a road or transfer switcher the H20-44 proved much more successful.

The small Akron, Canton & Youngstown of northern Ohio and nearby Pittsburgh & West Virginia, for instance, employed theirs in daily road assignments for many years.

Data Sheet and Specifications

Entered Production8/1947 (Demonstrator #2000)
Years Produced8/1947 - 3/1954
Fairbanks-Morse ClassH20-44
Engine38D8 1/8, 10-cylinder Opposed-Piston
Engine BuilderFairbanks-Morse
Carbody StylingRaymond Loewy
Length (Inside Couplers)51'
Height (Top Of Rail To Top Of Cab)14' 6"
Width10' 6"
Weight250,000 Lbs
Truck TypeGSC Swing Bolster, Drop-Side Equalizer
Truck Wheelbase9' 6"
Wheel Size40"
Traction Motors370F (4), Westinghouse
Traction Generator474A, Westinghouse
Auxiliary GeneratorYG45A, Westinghouse
MU (Multiple-Unit)Yes
Gear Ratio63:15
Tractive Effort42,800 Lbs at 14.7 mph
Top Speed65 mph

Production Roster

Total Built = 96

Owner Road Number Construction Number Contract Number Completion Date Quantity
Fairbanks Morse (Demo)2000*L1032LD438/19471
Union PacificDS1365L1031LD4310/19471
Union PacificDS1360-DS1364L1033-L1037LD398/19475
Pittsburgh & West Virginia50-51L1038-L1039LD4010/19472
Union PacificDS1367L1040LD4311/19471
Union PacificDS1368-DS1370L1041-L1043LD4312/19473
Akron, Canton & Youngstown500-502L1044-L1046LD421/19483
Akron, Canton & Youngstown503L1047LD422/19481
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)7110-711420L18-20L22LD557/19485
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)7100-710220L23-20L25LD447/19483
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)7103-710420L26-20L27LD448/19482
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)710520L28LD449/19481
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)7106-710920L29-20L32LD4410/19484
Pittsburgh & West Virginia52-5320L33-20L34LD5810/19482
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)7115-711620L35-20L36LD619/19482
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)711720L49LD784/19481
Indiana Harbor Belt (New York Central)711820L50LD785/19481
Pittsburgh & West Virginia54-5520L51-20L52LD981/19512
Pittsburgh & West Virginia56-5820L53-20L55LD1021/19513
Pittsburgh & West Virginia5920L56LD982/19511
Akron, Canton & Youngstown50421L309LD1012/19511
Pittsburgh & West Virginia60-6521L630-21L635LD1055/19526
Pittsburgh & West Virginia66-7121L713-21L718LD1392/19536
Akron, Canton & Youngstown50521L832LD1623/19541

* Fairbanks-Morse demonstrator #2000 became Union Pacific #DS1366.  It was originally built for the AAR Convention held in Atlantic City, New Jersey in August, 1947.

When production had ended on the FM H20-44 in March 1954 it had sold to five different railroads:

  • Akron, Canton & Youngstown (6)

  • New York Central (19)

  • Pennsylvania (38)

  • Pittsburgh & West Virginia (22)

  • Union Pacific (10)

UP also went on to purchase FM's two pair of demonstrators, both of which were designated  #2000 giving the railroad a total of 12 units. 

Today, at least three FM H20-44s are preserved;

  • Union Pacific #DS-1366 at the San Diego Railway Museum

  • Union Pacific #DS-1369 at the Illinois Railway Museum

  • Akron, Canton & Youngstown #505 at the Center for Transportation & Commerce in Galveston, Texas (painted as UP #410)

Lastly, for more information about the FM H20-44 please refer to the above chart for a complete production roster.


  • Kirkland, John F. Diesel Builders, The:  Fairbanks-Morse And Lima-Hamilton. Glendale: Interurban Press, 1985.
  • Pinkepank, Jerry A. Diesel Spotter's Guide.  Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Company, 1967.
  • Schafer, Mike. Vintage Diesel Locomotives. Osceola: MBI Publishing, 1998.

Recent Articles

  1. Nickel Plate Road PA-1 #190: A Reborn Icon

    Jul 24, 24 12:35 AM

    Nickel Plate Road PA-1 #190 is a replica of the original rebuilt by Doyle McCormack during a 21-year period before selling the engine in 2023.

    Read More

  2. The Railroad Diamond: Intersection of Steel and Precision

    Jul 23, 24 11:49 PM

    The diamond has remained a fascinating location in railroading where two, or more, lines meet and cross. It has also been notoriously difficult to maintain.

    Read More

  3. The "Blue Goose": Santa Fe's Only Streamlined Engine

    Jul 23, 24 11:38 PM

    Santa Fe 4-6-4 #3460 was part of its 3460 Class of 4-6-4s and was the railroad's only streamlined steam locomotive. It was utlimately scrapped in the 1950s.

    Read More