The Alco RS3

The Alco RS3 was the builder's pinnacle in its early road switcher designs. While the American Locomotive Company would have some success in later Road Switcher (RS) series models, like the RS11 and RSD5, nothing would compare to the amazing success of the RS3.  When it was released Alco had already cataloged two previous versions, the RS1 and RS2, both of which had seen modest success as the first true road-switchers ever produced. Unfortunately, overall the Schenectady manufacturer had considerable trouble seriously competing with Electro-Motive whose cab designs were far outpacing anything in its catalog. In any event, the RS3 would go on to be the most commonly seen Alco model across the country and remained in the company's catalog for more than six years. Today, numerous examples of this locomotive remain preserved, several of which are still operational.

The Alco RS3 entered production in 1950 replacing its predecessor the RS2. The new model produced slightly more horsepower than the earlier design at 1,600 hp using Alco's commonly problematic 12-cylinder, model 244 prime mover.  From a visual standpoint the RS3 looked almost identical to the RS2. Both had much improved styling over the RS1 albeit it was quite subtle with heavy beveling to corners and edges giving the unit a much more streamlined appearance (because of its good looks some railroads elected to employ theirs in passenger/commuter service).  Instantly beloved by railroads for its versatility and reliability, RS3s began rolling out of Alco's Schenectady shops in the masses.

Perhaps more than any other locomotive the RS3 defined Alco as a locomotive manufacturer offering eye-appealing, classy designs with their trademark belching black smoke.   While the RS1 and RS2 had sold relatively well perhaps it was the RS3's extra 100 horsepower over its predecessor that really appealed to railroads.  While the model 244 proved generally reliable and rugged in its smaller switcher and light road switcher designs (like the RS3) the prime mover simply not been properly researched and developed for heavy-haul use.  As such, the FA and PA models in production at the time experienced significant mechanical issues.  This allowed Electro-Motive to gain a notable edge and these problems ultimately resulted in Alco's exit from the market.

Interestingly, a year prior to the RS3's release EMD was finally cataloging a competitor, the GP7. Unfortunately for EMD their initial design, the BL2, proved unsuccessful although the industry leader quickly learned from their mistake. The model used the same road switcher design setup pioneered by Alco in its 1941 RS1 with a long trailing hood, offset cab, and short front hood.   Both as the time as well as from a historical stance the RS3 has been deemed an incredible success for Alco. However, had the builder acquired the reputation of EMD it may have sold even more.  The GP7 went on to sell more than 2,700 examples before its production run ended in 1954 and its successor, the GP9, was even more successful.

When the RS3 was produced Alco was still working in conjunction with General Electric and Westinghouse to supply internal components for its locomotives. As such the model contained air brakes and compressors from the latter while the former provided its model 752 traction motors that gave the RS3 around 60,000 pounds of initial tractive effort (more than 2,000 more than the RS2). The model weighed around 114.5 tons, was 55 feet/5 inches in length and equipped with dynamic braking. This latter ability allowed railroads to use the RS3 in heavy-haul service, such as moving coal drags up steep grades and many did not shy away from doing so; for instance the Reading, Lehigh Valley, Louisville & Nashville, Southern and others beat theirs to pieces in this capacity.

It was the model's ability to take this abuse regularly and continue operating on a daily basis that so endeared them to railroads and resulted in many returning to Alco for more.   It's a shame that the company could not have produced other locomotives that emulated the success of the RS3. By the time production ended in 1956 Alco would sell more than 1,300 and even today you can still find these venerable locomotives operating on short lines and tourist trains all across the country. Most interesting is that when Alco introduced its RS line in 1941 and found success with a locomotive that could be used in multiple roles EMD was convinced to begin manufacturing its own line of road switcher that would eventually help put Alco out of business one day.     For more information related to Alco's RS3 line please click here.

Production Roster Of Alco RS3s


Owner Road Number(s) Quantity Date Built
Alco Demonstrator 1600-1601, 1607 3 1950, 1952
Alton & Southern 43-45 3 1950-1956
American Smelting & Refining 2-3 2 1950
Atlantic & Danville 107 1 1951
Birmingham Southern 151-152 2 1950-1951
Blue Ridge Railway 1-2 2 1950
Boston & Maine 1505-1519, 1535-1545 26 1952-1954
Carolina & North-Western 5, 10 2 1950, 1953
Central Of Georgia 108-119, 133-159 39 1950-1953
Central Railroad Of New Jersey 1540-1555, 1700-1709 26 1950-1953
Central Vermont 1859-1860 2 1954
Chesapeake & Ohio 5600-5601 2 1955
Chicago & North Western 1551-1555, 1613-1624 17 1951-1953
Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific (Southern) 6208-6239 32 1952
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha (C&NW) 162-167 6 1952-1953
Danville & Western 1-2 2 1950
Delaware & Hudson 4026-4129 104 1950-1953
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western (Lackawanna) 901-918 18 1950-1952
Denver & Rio Grande Western 5200-5204 5 1951
Erie 914-933, 1005-1038 54 1950-1952
Federal Barge Lines 60-61 2 1952, 1955
Grand Trunk Western 1861-1862 2 1954
Great Northern 197-199, 220-224, 228-232 13 1950-1953
Green Bay & Western 305-308 4 1951, 1955
Gulf, Mobile & Ohio 1515-1523 9 1950-1952
Interstate Railroad 30-36, 38-39 8 1953, 1956
Kennecott Copper 109 1 1950
Lake Superior & Ishpeming 1604-1610 7 1950-1955
Lehigh & Hudson River 1-13 13 1950-1951
Lehigh Valley 215-216 2 1950
Litchfield & Madison 301-303 3 1952-1956
Long Island Rail Road 1551-1560 10 1955
Louisville & Nashville 100-154, 170-179, 214-255 107 1951-1956
Macon, Dublin & Savannah 1703-1706 4 1950-1956
Maine Central 556-557 2 1953
Milwaukee Road 2475-2495 21 1953-1955
Minnesota Transfer 200-201 2 1951
Missouri-Illinois Railway 19-20, 62-74 15 1951-1955
Missouri-Kansas-Texas (Katy) 1551-1563, 1701-1702 15 1950-1951
Missouri Pacific 4501-4526 26 1955
New Haven 517-561 45 1950-1952
New Orleans & Northeastern (Southern) 6875-6882 8 1950
New York Central 8223-8352 130 1950-1953
Nickel Plate Road 535-557 23 1954
Norfolk & Western 300-307 8 1955-1956
Northern Pacific 850-863 14 1953-1955
Oliver Iron Mining 1108-1110 3 1950
Pennsylvania 8435-8484, 8590-8605, 8817-8856, 8902-8916 121 1951-1955
Piedmont & Northern 100-109 10 1950-1951
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie (NYC) 8353-8357 5 1953
Reading 444-475, 481-524 76 1951-1953
Rock Island 455-474, 485-499 25 1950-1951
Rutland 201-208 8 1951-1952
Soo Line 352-353 2 1954
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt) 308-310, 311 (1st/2nd), 312-318, 356-360 17 1951-1952
St. Marys Railroad 501-502 2 1951, 1956
San Manuel Copper 1-3 3 1955
Seaboard Air Line 1629-1684 56 1950-1952
Southern 2025-2062, 2131-2145 53 1951-1953
Spokane, Portland & Seattle 65-82, 90-98 27 1950-1955
Tennessee Central 251-260 10 1950-1956
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis (TRRA) 1600-1603 4 1950
Texas Pacific-Missouri Pacific Terminal 24 1 1956
Toledo, Peoria & Western 207 1 1950
Western Maryland 185-198 14 1953-1954
Yadkin Railroad 9 1 1951

Of note, Alco's Canadian arm, the Montreal Locomotive Works, was not nearly as successful with the RS3 selling just 98 to the Canadian National, Canadian Pacific, Ontario Northland, Pacific Great Eastern, Quebec, North Shore & Labrador, and the Roberval & Saguenay.  Additionally, Alco built another 69 units for foreign sale including the Algerian Railways, Central do Brazil, Consolidated Railways of Cuba (before trade bans with Cuba were enacted), Ferrocaril del Pacifico, and National de Mexico (the above production roster includes only domestically sold RS3s).  From the historical narrative it is fascinating that it was Alco, not EMD, which pioneered the endearing locomotive design still regularly used in freight service today; the common road-switcher.  To read more about other Alco Road-Switcher (RS) models please visit the Diesel Locomotives section of the site, which can be reached from the top of this page.

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