What is today known as the Cardinal has been quite the roller coaster operation for Amtrak since it began running a version of the train back when it first began in the spring of 1971. The history of the route the train now operates was a collection of various fallen flags lines and/or their streamliners including the Pennsylvania (after Amtrak), Chesapeake & Ohio, and New York Central. Under Amtrak the routing now used by the train was mostly retained although it was not then known as the Cardinal. This changed in the late 1970s when the current name was adopted. Due to low ridership the train was canceled but returned to service as a requirement by Congress. Despite its rough history, few available amenities, and somewhat poor operating times, the train provides passengers with incredible scenery along through the Appalachians. Additionally, hopefully discussed upgrades will improve the train's services in the near future.

Amtrak F40PH #401 has the westbound "Cardinal" at Manassas, Virginia on April 11, 1993. Wade Massie photo.

Much of the routing the Cardinal uses today was originally known as the George Washington, a streamliner operated by C&O. It was the railroad's flagship train first inaugurated on April 30, 1932 and connected Washington, D.C. with Cincinnati, Ohio. During the trip passengers could experience breathtaking views of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Virgina, Appalachians through West Virginia as well as the New River George in the southern part of the state. Finally, once the train crossed into Kentucky one could experience the state's rolling countryside and bucolic farms while catching glimpses of the meandering Ohio River. In later years travelers had the opportunity to reach several different cities via connecting through trains such as St. Louis (B&O), New York (PRR), and Clifton Forge.

Amtrak's westbound "Cardinal" hustles through the snow at Pence Springs, West Virginia on February 12, 2014. Loyd Lowry photo.

The George Washington was also not the only streamliner to operate on this routing as the C&O's older, and previous flaghsip Fast Flying Virginian (or F.F.V.), also served the same cities. With Amtrak taking over intercity passenger rail services on May 1, 1971 both trains were not retained. Instead the same routing was renamed as New York Central's former James Whitcomb Riley, a regional streamliner that once served Chicago and Cincinnati but was expanded under Amtrak to also serve the George Washington's old territory to Washington. Because the distance traveled was more than 1,000 miles through sleepers were available although service was not particularly good given the poor equipment handed down to Amtrak, particularly in the Northeast/Midwest sector.

A pair of Amtrak F40PH's with the westbound "Cardinal" pass the Norfolk Southern's small yard at Van Dorn Street in Alexandria, Virginia on December 28, 1994. Wade Massie photo.

The James Whitcomb Riley became a true headache for Amtrak. After 1972 the first leg of the train's journey was along Chessie System rails and northwest of Cincinnati it utilized Penn Central trackage, which became more deplorable and unreliable as that railroad sank deeper into bankruptcy. As slow orders along PC's system mounted Amtrak was forced to reroute the train several times, eventually moving off of its lines altogether and using a Chessie System/B&O routing after 1980. It was also around this time that train's name was changed to the Cardinal, effective on the October 30, 1977 timetable. The name was chosen due to the fact that the cardinal was, interestingly enough, the state bird in all of the states through which it operated.

Amtrak P42DC #129 has the eastbound "Cardinal" as it rolls past the former Chesapeake & Ohio 'cabin' (interlocking tower) at Hinton, West Virginia on January 27, 2013. Loyd Lowry photo.

Additionally, in the early 1980s a change to the train's routing saw it extended to the Big Apple (New York City) along the PRR's former Northeast Corridor (NEC), owned by Amtrak. However, with sagging interest and ridership the carrier opted to cancel the train on September 30, 1981. Had it not been for a Congressional mandate to operate a train serving D.C. and Chicago the train's history would likely have ended then. It returned to the rails on January 8, 1982 and has remained on Amtrak's timetable ever since. Today the train still uses much of the former C&O main line although west of Cincinnati, via Indianapolis, it operates on ex-PRR trackage. North of Indiana's state capital the train is combined with the Hoosier State (a train that once extended to Louisville, Kentucky).

Amtrak P42DC #83 has the westbound "Cardinal" at the former Chesapeake & Ohio's depot in Alderson, West Virginia on May 11, 2012. Loyd Lowry photo.

Because it serves a corridor that has never been particularly busy the train only provides tri-weekly service currently and sometimes features a consist of just a few cars. Usually you can find a GE P42 diesel locomotive pulling three Amfleet II luxury coaches (for long distance travel), a single Viewliner sleeper, baggage car, and a diner-lounge (which does not offer full service meals). It is one of the only long distance Amtrak trains to offer such few amenities. However, hope is one the way. A 2010 plan would look to heavily upgrade the train with daily service, return Superliner cars to the consist, and change the routing to St. Louis.  However, thus far those hopes have not been realized. In any event, if you are hoping or planning to ride the train do not be deterred by these setbacks. In general, travelers have much enjoyed their trips.

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Header Photo: Drew Jacksich

Researching Rights-Of-Way

A popular pastime for many is studying and/or exploring abandoned rights-of-way.  Today, there are tens of thousands of miles scattered throughout the country.  Many were pulled up in the 1970's and 1980's although others were removed long before that.  If you are researching active or abandoned corridors you might want to check out the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Historical Topographic Map Explorer.  It is an excellent resource with thousands of historic maps on file throughout the country.  Just type in a town or city and click on the timeline of maps at the bottom of the page!

Studying Diesels

You will be hard pressed at finding a better online resource regarding diesel locomotives than Craig Rutherford's  The website contains everything from historic (fallen flags) to contemporary (Class I's, regionals, short lines, and even some museums/tourist lines) rosters, locomotive production information, technical data, all notable models cataloged by the five major builders (American Locomotive, Electro-Motive, General Electric, Fairbanks-Morse, and Baldwin), and much more.  A highly recommended database!

Electro-Motive Database

In 1998 a gentleman by the name of Andre Kristopans put together a web page highlighting virtually every unit every out-shopped by General Motors' Electro-Motive Division.  Alas, in 2013 the site closed by thankfully Don Strack rescued the data and transferred it over to his site (another fine resource).  If you are researching anything EMD related please visit this page first.  The information includes original numbers, serials, and order numbers.