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The Olympian Hiawatha

Last revised: January 6, 2024

By: Adam Burns

In the late 1940s the Milwaukee Road introduced the Olympian Hiawatha, the transcontinental version of the railroad’s very popular fleet of Hiawatha passenger trains. 

The original version of the train was the Twin Cities Hiawatha, which began operating between Chicago and the Twin Cities on May 29, 1935, one of the first streamlined trains ever to be introduced in the U.S.

For the Milwaukee Road, the Hiawathas were virtually the only streamlined passenger trains run by the railroad (they certainly were the most popular and well-remembered) with the rest operated in conjunction with Union Pacific. 

Originally powered by 4-4-2 Atlantic-type steam locomotives (later 4-6-4 Hudson-types) the train was entirely streamlined, including the locomotive, and home-built in the Milwaukee’s own shops.

These trains became instantly successful and regularly cruised over 100 mph with nary a bump or shudder during the ride (both trains could make the jaunt between the two cities in roughly six hours).

Photos

0293852735827689526893897689378.jpgMilwaukee Road boxcab set E22A and E22B have the "Olympian Hiawatha" at Seattle's Union Station, circa 1958. Photographer unknown. American-Rails.com collection.

History

These regional trains offered by the Milwaukee Road became so successful that the railroad found itself short on demand and to meet such eventually operated two versions of the train, the Morning Hiawatha and the Afternoon Hiawatha.

There were eventually four versions of Milwaukee Roads’ regional Hiawathas.  These included:

  • Twin Cities Hiawatha

  • North Woods Hiawatha (Served New Lisbon, Wisconsin to Minocqua, Wisconsin)

  • Chippewa Hiawatha (Served Chicago; Ontonagon, Michigan; and Milwaukee and Green Bay)

  • Midwest Hiawatha (from Chicago this train served both Omaha, Nebraska and Sioux Falls, South Dakota). 

Timetable (1952)

With the success of its regional Hiawathas, in 1947, about twelve years after the railroad first launched its Hiawatha the railroad introduced the streamlined Olympian Hiawatha, a train meant to fully compete with the Great Northern and Northern Pacific for rail travel to and from the Pacific Northwest.

- The Milwaukee had operated the Olympian and Columbian since 1911 over its Pacific Extension but these trains used heavyweight equipment and were pulled by conventional steam locomotives. -

Consist (1952)

A 1952 consist of Milwaukee Road's train #15, the westbound "Olympian Hiawatha." Author's collection.
A 1952 consist of Milwaukee Road's train #15, the eastbound "Olympian Hiawatha." Author's collection.

The Milwaukee Road’s Hiawathas owe their creation to industrial designer Otto Kuhler, the same man who designed the Baltimore & Ohio’s regal Capitol Limited and its classic royal blue, gold, and gray livery. Kuhler designed similar stunning features on the Hiawathas.

However, it was Brook Stevens, who designed the celebrated Sky Top sleeper-lounge observations (perhaps the most distinctive and dramatic observation cars ever built) that created the Milwaukee Road’s Olympian Hiawatha

The train featured passenger equipment (save for the cars purchased from Pullman) entirely home-built by the railroad’s own shop forces, which along with the beautiful Sky Top observations included cars such as the Super Domes, which allowed for full car-length, panoramic viewing.

At A Glance

Route
Chicago - Seattle/Tacoma
Travel Time
45 Hours and 45 Minutes (1956)
Service History
June 29, 1947 - May 22, 1961
Train Numbers

15 (Westbound)

16 (Eastbound)

Distance
2,227 Miles
End Terminals

Union Station (Seattle)/Union Station (Tacoma)

Union Station (Chicago)

When the train initially began on June 29, 1947 it included a mix of heavy and lightweight cars but by 1949 when the Pullman equipment arrived it was an entirely streamlined, lightweight train. For power the train featured Erie-Built, diesel locomotives manufactured by Fairbanks-Morse.

These locomotives were originally designated to handle the train between Minneapolis and Tacoma, even in electrified territory, according to Jim Scribbins' book, "The Milwaukee Road Remembered."  However, they were eventually replaced with electrics between Harlowton, Montana and Avery, Idaho and then again between Othello, Washington and Seattle. 

6162381924023572635726829937.jpgMilwaukee Road Bipolar E-4 has the eastbound "Olympian Hiawatha" boarding at Deer Lodge, Montana on April 29, 1958. Richard Wallin photo. American-Rails.com collection.

Final Years

While aesthetically quite stunning with added touches by Brooks Stevens of a chromed-nose design with “Olympian Hiawatha” adorning the locomotive along its forward flanks, the Erie-Builts were not very reliable, which led to their replacement. 

Sadly, the train lasted a mere 14 years and the Milwaukee Road bowed out of the Pacific Northwest market, canceling the train in May of 1961.  

Interestingly, while the railroad claimed lack of ridership on the Olympian Hi thanks to historian Michael Sol's exhaustive research it actually appears the Milwaukee saw the writing on the wall early and simply wanted to rid itself of the unprofitable train (the railroad saved about $2.1 million annually for doing so). 

2060928347028172y1u027088.jpgMilwaukee Road "Bi-Polar" E-2 is stopped at Butte, Montana with train #16, the eastbound "Olympian Hiawatha," on a winter's morning in 1958. American-Rails.com collection.

Also of interest is how well each of the three lines actually fared from an operating standpoint.  According to railroad historian and civil engineer Michael Sol, the ICC's official statistics from 1959 contain the following operating ratios for passenger service:

  • Milwaukee Road = 148.7%

  • Great Northern = 177.4% 

  • Northern Pacific = 194.3%

That same year the Milwaukee earned $3.3 million in gross revenues for the Olympian Hi alone while the Northern Pacific earned $6 million for its entire fleet and the Great Northern $10 million.

388199581304808290033.jpgMilwaukee Road's train #16, the eastbound transcontinental "Olympian Hiawatha" (Seattle/Tacoma - Twin Cities - Chicago) departs Seattle behind boxcab set E-23 on June 10, 1956. By the date of this photo the railroad was switching its passenger livery to Union Pacific's Armour Yellow as the two began partnering between Chicago and Omaha in October, 1955. Stan Kistler photo.

Perhaps of greater note here is that, in actuality, the three railroads did not really "compete" with their transcontinental services as all served different intermediate points between Seattle and Minneapolis/Chicago.

Additionally, by the time the Olympian Hi was launched there were increasingly fewer passengers riding  these trains the entire way (Seattle - Minneapolis/Chicago); most boarded or de-boarded somewhere in between. 

Timetable (July, 1956)

Time/Leave (Train #15) Milepost Location Time/Arrive (Train #16)
3:00 PM (Dp)0.0
Chicago, IL (Union Station)
1:45 PM (Ar)
4:15 PM85
Milwaukee, WI
12:20 PM (DP) 12:15 (Ar)
5:35 PM178
Portage, WI (Madison via bus)
10:42 AM
195
Wisconsin Dells, WI
10:27 AM
240
Tomah, WI
9:51 AM
6:55 PM (Ar) 7:00 PM (Dp)281
La Crosse, WI
9:15 AM (Dp) 9:10 AM (Ar)
7:28 PM308
Winona, MN
8:40 AM
9:15 PM410
St. Paul, MN
7:10 AM (Dp) 7:05 AM (Ar)
9:45 PM421
Minneapolis, MN
6:20 AM (Dp) 6:10 AM (Ar)
12:20 AM554
Montevideo, MN
3:55 AM
2:55 AM (Ar) 3:00 AM (Dp)707
Aberdeen, SD
1:15 AM (Dp) 1:10 AM (Ar)
4:30 AM (Ar)805
Mobridge, SD (CT)
11:40 PM (Dp)
3:30 AM (Dp)805
Mobridge, SD (MT)
10:40 PM (Ar)
5:05 AM904
Lemmon, SD
8:58 PM
5:30 AM927
Hettinger, ND
8:32 PM
6:10 AM967
Bowman, ND
7:49 PM
6:40 AM995
Marmarth, ND
7:22 PM
7:00 AM1015
Baker, MT
7:00 PM
8:40 AM (Ar) 8:50 AM (Dp)1119
Miles City, MT
5:20 PM (Dp) 5:10 PM (Ar)
11:07 AM1265
Roundup, MT (Great Falls via bus)
2:51 PM
12:15 PM (Ar) 12:20 PM (Dp) (Begin electrification)1335
Harlowton, MT
1:45 PM (Dp) 1:40 PM (Ar) (End electrification)
1:35 PM1393
Ringling, MT
12:22 PM
3:00 PM1450
Three Forks, MT (Yellowstone National Park via bus)
10:55 AM
4:53 PM1522
Butte, MT
9:03 AM
5:45 PM (Ar) 5:55 PM (Dp)1562
Deer Lodge, MT
8:05 AM (Dp) 7:55 AM (Ar)
7:20 PM1641
Missoula, MT
6:25 AM
8:29 PM1703
Superior, MT
5:13 AM
10:40 PM (Ar) (End electrification)1773
Avery, ID (MT)
3:10 AM (Dp)
9:45 PM (Dp)1773
Avery, ID (PT)
2:05 AM (Ar) (Begin electrification)
11:06 PM1818
St. Maries, ID
12:41 AM
12:55 AM (Ar) 1:05 AM (Dp)1879
Spokane, WA
10:55 PM (Dp) 10:45 PM (Ar)
3:45 AM (Ar) 3:55 AM (Dp) (Begin electrification)2000
Othello, WA
8:10 PM (Dp) 8:05 PM (Ar) (End electrification)
5:56 AM2074
Ellensburg, WA
6:12 PM
6:35 AM2099
Cle Elum, WA
5:38 PM
8:53 AM2177
Renton, WA
3:38 PM
9:30 AM (Ar) 9:45 AM (Dp)2189
Seattle, WA (Union Station)
3:15 PM (Dp) 3:00 PM (Ar)
10:15 AM2210
Auburn, WA
2:25 PM
10:45 AM2227
Tacoma, WA (Union Station)
2:00 PM

Milwaukee Road E9A #34-A leads train #15, the westbound "Olympian Hiawatha," along the Missouri River near Three Forks, Montana on June 18, 1960. Ron Nixon photo. American-Rails.com collection.

Legacy

From a railfan's and historian's (and even a traveler of the time period) perspective it's a shame that the Olympian Hi was canceled so early considering it operated through some of the most stunningly beautiful areas of the country.  

In any event, today, while Amtrak carriers on the legendary Hiawatha service, to some degree, offering Hiawatha regional trains between Milwaukee and Chicago, the Olympian Hiawatha and the route it traveled are sadly relegated to history and the memories of those who were lucky enough to ride it.

In the 1970s the Milwaukee Road began making dumbfounding managerial decisions that ultimately led to the railroad’s undoing in the late 1970s and subsequent abandonment of all lines west of Terry, Montana.

Photo Gallery

29502935427372782798280627.jpgMilwaukee Road "Little Joe" E-20 has train #16, the eastbound "Olympian Hiawatha," crossing Basin Creek Road east (south) of Butte, Montana as the train begins the 1.7% grade up the west slope of Pipestone Pass, circa 1958. Photographer unknown. American-Rails.com collection.
02934273723562788934689788.jpgMilwaukee Road boxcab set E-23 leads the "Olympian Hiawatha" westbound over the Clark Fork River at Cyr, Montana, circa 1958. Photographer unknown. American-Rails.com collection.

Sources

  • Murray, Tom.  Milwaukee Road, The.  St. Paul:  MBI Publishing, 2005.
  • Schafer, Mike and Welsh, Joe. Streamliners, History of a Railroad Icon. St. Paul: MBI Publishing, 2003.
  • Scribbins, Jim.  Hiawatha Story, The.  Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
  • Scribbins, Jim. Milwaukee Road Remembered.  Minneapolis:  University Of Minnesota, 2008 (Second Edition).
  • Solomon, Brian and Gruber, John. Milwaukee Road's Hiawatha's, The.  St. Paul: Voyageur Press, 2006.

SteamLocomotive.com

Wes Barris's SteamLocomotive.com is simply the best web resource on the study of steam locomotives. 

It is difficult to truly articulate just how much material can be found at this website. 

It is quite staggering and a must visit!