South Dakota Railroads And Railfanning In "The Mount Rushmore State"

South Dakota are not what they once were as the state has seen its mileage plummet since it spiked during the industry's heyday of the 1920s. Today, both Class Is BNSF Railway and Canadian Pacific continue to have a significant presence in the Mount Rushmore State along with one Class II, regional and just a few short lines. Part of the reason South Dakota has lost so many miles of railroad is the result of numerous branch lines that tapped grain elevators and other agricultural business in the state's eastern regions, which by the 1950s was either switching to other modes of transportation or could no longer support so many railroads in the granger region. Western South Dakota in the mountains of the Black Hills used to include much trackage serving numerous mines although today only include the CP and BNSF's line to Wyoming's lucrative Power River Basin coal region (it remains to be seen as to whether the Canadian road will ever complete the DM&E extension into this area).

Black Hills Central Railroad 2-6-6-2T #110 departs Hill City, South Dakota on June 4, 2013. Drew Jacksich photo.

South Dakota railroads date back to 1872 when the original Dakota Southern Railroad completed its main line between Vermillion and Sioux City, Iowa a distance of roughly 37 miles. Interestingly, the idea for the railroad began in January of 1872 and by early fall that same year it was completed and in operation. The Dakota Southern would eventually become part of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad (predecessor to the company today commonly known as the Milwaukee Road). Following the Dakota Southern the Mount Rushmore State would find itself home to well-known Midwestern railroads like the Milwaukee Road, Chicago & North Western Railway, CB&Q and CRI&P. 

What remains of Milwaukee Road's train #15, the westbound "Olympian Hiawatha" (no longer a transcontinental service by this date), is boarding at Aberdeen, South Dakota on January 28, 1968. Roger Puta photo.

While what remains of South Dakota's rail network is mostly owned by BNSF and CP there are several smaller companies in operation there as well. These include regional Dakota, Missouri Valley & Western Railroad and short lines D&I Railroad, the new Dakota Southern Railway, Ellis & Eastern Railroad, Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Sunflour Railroad, and the Twin Cities & Western.

Dakota Southern SD9E #4427 treads lightly within a sea of grass over a former Milwaukee Road branch near rural Betts, South Dakota on August 5, 2003. Wade Massie photo.

South Dakota railroads today operate just 1,800 miles of a network that once featured more than 4,200 miles. Having lost 57% of its railroad infrastructure since the 1920s the state is far above the average declined during that time for most states which ranges between 45% to 50%. Much of this loss can probably be explained by the fact that agriculture has always played such a large role for the state's economy and railroads began to lose a lot of this business following World War II. For a more in-depth look at the state's rail mileage over the years please take a look at the chart below.  While South Dakota railroads do not include many museums or tourist railroads they do feature the famous Black Hills Central Railroad which operates the last running Mallet, a 2-6-6-2T type.

* South Dakota's first railroad opened before the territory even joined the Union.  According to the South Dakota State Historic Preservation Office, in a dissertation prepared by Mark Hufstetler and Michael Bedeau in July, 1998, John I. Blair formed the Dakota Southern Railway Company in 1871 to bring rail service to what was then known as simply Dakota Territory.  The new system would link Yankton with Sioux City, Iowa.  According to Trains Magazine, the first segment to Vermillion (36 miles) opened in 1872.  The following year the line was completed.  In 1883 it was acquired by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, becoming one of the granger's many secondary agricultural corridors. 

Dakota Rail F7A #81-C (built as Milwaukee Road #116-C in 1951) is tied up between switching assignments at a grain elevator in Sisseton, South Dakota during May, 1985. Warren Calloway photo.

As for passenger train services, historically only the Milwaukee Road's transcontinental Olympian Hiawatha traveled through South Dakota as competitors Great Northern and Northern Pacific traveled through North Dakota with their important streamliners. Unfortunately, today, Amtrak provides no services in the state.   In all, South Dakota railroads include some interesting and unique operations on a beautiful backdrop setting of our country's Northern Plains region. While railroading here is not as prolific as it once was you will quite likely enjoy seeing that which remains, from main line railroading to local shortline operations.

A trio of former Milwaukee Road SD10's and an ex-Nickel Plate Road GP9 are seen here tied down in Huron, South Dakota during the early Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern era (formed in 1986 over components of the Chicago & North Western's western territory in the Minnesota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska) in the spring of 1988. Warren Calloway photo.

If you enjoy the state's history with trains you might like the book South Dakota Railroads by authors Mike Wiese and Tom Hayes.  The title comes from Arcadia Publishing's "Images of Rail" series and primarily features a collection of historic photos through 128 pages.   Although they do not contain much text I have several of Arcadia's titles from this series in my collection and have thoroughly enjoyed all of them for the pictures alone (all of which are featured in black and white).  If you're interested in perhaps purchasing the book please visit the link above which will take you to ordering information through

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Header Photo: Drew Jacksich

Researching Rights-Of-Way

A popular pastime for many is studying and/or exploring abandoned rights-of-way.  Today, there are tens of thousands of miles scattered throughout the country.  Many were pulled up in the 1970's and 1980's although others were removed long before that.  If you are researching active or abandoned corridors you might want to check out the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Historical Topographic Map Explorer.  It is an excellent resource with thousands of historic maps on file throughout the country.  Just type in a town or city and click on the timeline of maps at the bottom of the page!

Studying Diesels

You will be hard pressed at finding a better online resource regarding diesel locomotives than Craig Rutherford's  The website contains everything from historic (fallen flags) to contemporary (Class I's, regionals, short lines, and even some museums/tourist lines) rosters, locomotive production information, technical data, all notable models cataloged by the five major builders (American Locomotive, Electro-Motive, General Electric, Fairbanks-Morse, and Baldwin), and much more.  A highly recommended database!

Electro-Motive Database

In 1998 a gentleman by the name of Andre Kristopans put together a web page highlighting virtually every unit every out-shopped by General Motors' Electro-Motive Division.  Alas, in 2013 the site closed by thankfully Don Strack rescued the data and transferred it over to his site (another fine resource).  If you are researching anything EMD related please visit this page first.  The information includes original numbers, serials, and order numbers.