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Baldwin's "VO-1000": Its Popular, 1000 HP Switcher


Last revised: June 23, 2023

By: Adam Burns

The VO-1000 was Baldwin's most popular diesel locomotive. Including the later DS-4-4-1000, Baldwin, old more than 1,000 examples.

Most sales of the VO-1000 went to large Class I railroads. However, the diesel also found a market with the industries and smaller railroads looking to fill their power needs. 

Today, the VO-1000 is the best preserved Baldwin diesel, as more than a half-dozen can be found at museums around the country. Additionally, B&O #412 owned by the United Railroad Historical Society is leased out to short line SMS Lines for revenue freight service.


Rock Island VO-1000 #760, circa 1955. Location not recorded. American-Rails.com collection.


Baldwin released its VO-1000 while the less powerful VO-660 was in production. The designations behind Baldwin's switchers included engine type (the VO was a diesel engine built by De La Vergne who supplied many prime movers for Baldwin over the years) and horsepower.

Baldwin would later change this early classification system into a complex set of numbers, letters, and dashes before finally settling on the Standard Line designations beginning in 1950.

In any event, if Baldwin had ever shown as much interest in main line diesel locomotives (where the real money was to be made) as it did its early switcher designs the company would surely have survived much longer or perhaps still even be in business today.

Union Pacific VO-1000 'DS1200.' Location and date not recorded (likely 1950s). American-Rails.com collection.

The VO-1000 entered production three years after Baldwin's first VO-660 was completed (1936).

The more powerful variant was a bit longer than models being released by Alco and EMC at 48 feet. However, it carried the classic look that would come to define switcher models, an end cab that was wider and taller than the leading long hood to give crews maximum visibility.

825039582737346283889389798.jpgSt. Louis-San Francisco VO-1000 #232 was photographed here at the engine terminal in Memphis, Tennessee, circa 1967. The Frisco acquired a fairly large fleet of these switchers, 38 in all. Mac Owen photo. American-Rails.com collection.

The VO-1000 used a four-axle, B-B truck setup and featured internal components almost exclusively from Westinghouse (the two companies had worked well together for many years dating back to the late 19th century in collaborating to build electric locomotives).

While the model did not feature dynamic braking or turbocharging it did offer excellent tractive effort; 60,000 pounds starting and 34,000 pounds continuous (a trait not lost on railroads).  

The switchers proved quite versatile in light duty service such as branch line and yard work. It also made them marketable for industrial applications where many were also purchased. When production ended on the VO-1000 just after World War II, nearly 550 had rolled out of Eddystone.


For historical reference, Baldwin technically never classified the model as the "VO-1000."  As Brian Solomon notes in his book, "Baldwin Locomotives," this was another railfan designation coined later to identify these early switchers.  In truth, Baldwin never gave its first production switcher line any name at all, only listing them by their horsepower rating.

Data Sheet and Specifications

Early Variants

Entered Production12/2/1939 (Santa Fe #2201)
Years Produced12/2/1939-3/1940
Baldwin Class8-DE-1000/1 E:0-4-4-0 1000/1 E
EngineVO, 6-Cylinder In-Line
Engine BuilderDe La Vergne
Carbody StylingBaldwin
Length (Between Coupler Pulling Faces)48'
Weight240,000 Lbs.
Height (Top Of Rail To Top Of Cab)14' 6"
Truck TypeBatz
Truck Wheelbase8' 4"
Wheel Size40"
Traction Motors367 (4), Westinghouse
Traction Generator486H2, Westinghouse
Auxiliary GeneratorYG30C, Westinghouse
Gear Ratio16:59
Tractive Effort Rating33,600 Lbs at 8.3 MPH.
Top Speed65 MPH

Later Variants

Entered Production8/17/1940 (Reading #80)
Years Produced8/17/1940-7/16/1946
Baldwin Class0-4-4-0 1000/1 E
EngineVO, 6-Cylinder In-Line
Engine BuilderDe La Vergne
Carbody StylingBaldwin
Length (Between Coupler Pulling Faces)48'
Weight240,000 Lbs.
Height (Top Of Rail To Top Of Cab)14' 6"
Truck TypeGSC Rigid Bolster, Drop-Side Equalizer
Truck Wheelbase8'
Wheel Size40"
Traction Motors362B (4), Westinghouse
Traction Generator487H2, Westinghouse
Auxiliary GeneratorYG30C, Westinghouse
Gear Ratio16:76
Tractive Effort Rating33,600 Lbs at 8.3 MPH.
Top Speed45 MPH

Production Rosters

Total Built = 548

Early Variants

Owner Road Number Baldwin Serial Number Construction Number Completion Date
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe220116230212/2/1939
Missouri Pacific9103**26230111/17/1939
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe220236230312/12/1939
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe220346230411/23/1939
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe22045623051/12/1940
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe22056623062/3/1940
Baldwin307 (Became Spokane, Portland & Seattle #30)7623072/4/1940
Spokane, Portland & Seattle30 (Ex-Demo #307)*76230711/14/1940 (Acquisition date)
Baldwin332 (Became Spokane, Portland & Seattle #31)8623322/24/1940
Spokane, Portland & Seattle31 (Ex-Demo #332)86233211/14/1940 (Acquisition date)
Baldwin333 (Became Central of Georgia #22)9623333/1940
Central of Georgia2296233310/19/1940 (Acquisition date)

The above information pertains to the initial VO-1000's built, which included Baldwin serial numbers 1-10. 

Beginning with serial #8 (demonstrator #332), Baldwin changed the classification system from 8-DE-1000/1 E to 0-4-4-0 1000/1 DE.  This change occurred in August, 1939.

Baldwin's original classification system: 8-DE-1000/1 E

  • 8 = Total number of wheels
  • DE = Diesel-Electric
  • 1000/1 = One 1000 HP engine
  • E = 4 pairs of driving wheels

Baldwin's updated classification system: 0-4-4-0 1000/1 E

  • 0-4-4-0 = Whyte Notation
  • 1000/1 = One 1000 HP engine
  • E = 4 pairs of driving wheels

*  Upon sale to the SP&S, this locomotive's Batz trucks were replaced with General Steel Castings Corporations' rigid bolster, drop-size equalizer trucks.

** Sold to the Minneapolis & St. Louis on July 24, 1940 and became M&StL #D340.  It was traded to Baldwin for a new VO-1000 (serial #385) on November 17, 1944.  Demonstrator #334 subsequently became Eddystone plant switcher #300.

 Later Variants

Owner Road Number Baldwin Serial Number Construction Number Completion Date
Union Railroad500136240410/3/1940
Union Railroad501146240510/3/1940
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1680156240610/31/1940
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1681166240711/9/1940
Patapsco & Back Rivers70176240810/25/1940
Patapsco & Back Rivers71186240912/26/1940
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern47519624101/10/1941
Iowa Ordnance Depot1-12020624115/29/1941
Oliver Iron Mining Company90721624197/26/1941
Oliver Iron Mining Company90822624208/31/1941
Oliver Iron Mining Company90923624218/30/1941
Northern Pacific10924625036/13/1941
Northern Pacific11025625046/28/1941
Patapsco & Back Rivers7226625058/29/1941
Southern Pacific132027625067/6/1941
Southern Pacific132128625077/6/1941
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe220629625356/11/1941
Southern Pacific132230641987/18/1941
Southern Pacific132331641997/18/1941
Southern Pacific132432642007/21/1941
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis59133642018/2/1941
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis59234642028/5/1941
Union Railroad50235642038/6/1941
Union Railroad50336642048/8/1941
Union Railroad50437642058/14/1941
Union Railroad50538642068/22/1941
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern47639642079/5/1941
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern47740642089/16/1941
Seaboard Air Line140041642099/20/1941
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis55426421010/7/1941
Great Northern132436421110/31/1941
Great Northern133446421210/24/1941
Southern RailwayDS2205456425511/2/1941
Seaboard Air Line1401466425611/2/1941
Seaboard Air Line1402476425711/7/1941
St. Louis-San Francisco200486425811/23/1941
St. Louis-San Francisco201496425912/9/1941
St. Louis-San Francisco202506426012/9/1941
St. Louis-San Francisco20351642611/9/1942
St. Louis-San Francisco204526426212/15/1941
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis593536426312/23/1941
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis59454642641/10/1941
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis59555642651/13/1942
Atlantic Coast Line60656642661/2/1942
Atlantic Coast Line60757642671/2/1942
Chicago Short Line10058642681/23/1942
Southern Pacific132559642693/14/1942
Southern Pacific132660642703/14/1942
Southern Pacific132761642713/14/1942
Southern Pacific132862642723/14/1942
Southern Pacific132963642733/14/1942
Litchfield & Madison10064642742/25/1942
Macon, Dublin & Savannah100065642752/20/1942
Oliver Iron Mining Company91066642763/21/1942
Oliver Iron Mining Company91167642773/25/1942
Oliver Iron Mining Company91268642784/2/1942
Oliver Iron Mining Company91369642794/8/1942
U.S. War Department745370644077/1/1942
Oliver Iron Mining Company91471644087/30/1942
Oliver Iron Mining Company91572644097/25/1942
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)100073644107/10/1942
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)20574644117/6/1942
Belt Railway of Chicago40175644127/30/1942
U.S. War Department745476644137/26/1942
U.S. War Department745577644148/4/1942
Atlantic Coast Line60878644158/10/1942
Patapsco & Back Rivers7379644168/8/1942
Atlantic Coast Line60980644178/20/1942
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis59681644188/22/1942
Kentucky & Indiana Terminal4482644198/25/1942
U.S. War Department745683644208/27/1942
U.S. War Department745784644218/31/1942
U.S. Navy585644229/11/1942
U.S. Navy686644239/11/1942
Kentucky & Indiana Terminal45876442410/3/1942
Spokane, Portland & Seattle32896442610/12/1942
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1001906442710/9/1942
Northern Pacific111916442810/17/1942
Northern Pacific112926442910/16/1942
Kentucky & Indiana Terminal46936443010/26/1942
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2207956443211/7/1942
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)206966443311/1/1942
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1682976443411/11/1942
St. Louis-Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1002986443512/15/1942
U.S. War Department7461996443612/5/1942
U.S. War Department74621006472712/11/1942
U.S. War Department74631016472812/18/1942
Phelps Dodge Corporation9102647292/1/1943
Phelps Dodge Corporation10103647302/3/1943
Kennecott Copper Corporation801104647311/31/1943
U.S. Navy10105647322/4/1943
U.S. Navy1106647332/19/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2208107647342/7/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2209108647352/7/1943
Southern Pacific1375109647362/18/1943
Southern Pacific1376110647372/18/1943
U.S. Navy7111647383/13/1943
U.S. Navy8112647393/8/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2210113647402/8/1943
U.S. War Department7126114647413/15/1943
U.S. War Department7464115647423/18/1943
Kennecott Copper Corporation803116647433/24/1943
U.S. War Department7127117647443/31/1943
U.S. War Department7128118647454/29/1943
Oliver Iron Mining Company918119647464/23/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2211120647484/12/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2212121647494/13/1943
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1003122647504/19/1943
U.S. War Department7129123647105/5/1943
U.S. War Department7130124647115/18/1943
Oliver Iron Mining Company919125647125/20/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2213126647135/10/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2214127647145/10/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2215128647155/13/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2216129647165/13/1943
Southern Pacific1377130647175/21/1943
U.S. War Department7137131647186/2/1943
U.S. War Department7138132647196/15/1943
U.S. War Department7466133647206/2/1943
Oliver Iron Mining Company922134647216/13/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2217137647246/13/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2218138647256/13/1943
U.S. War Department7139139647266/22/1943
U.S. War Department7140140647277/3/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2219141647287/7/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2220142647297/7/1943
Oliver Iron Mining Company923147677348/10/1943
Oliver Iron Mining Company924148677358/10/1943
Oliver Iron Mining Company925149677368/4/1943
U.S. War Department2150677378/13/1943
U.S. War Department7467151677388/18/1943
U.S. War Department7143152677398/8/1943
Louisville & Nashville2202153677408/5/1943
Louisville & Nashville2203154677418/6/1943
Louisville & Nashville2204155677428/10/1943
Louisville & Nashville2205156677438/9/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2221157677448/11/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2222159676408/14/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2223160676418/13/1943
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1683161676428/23/1943
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1684162676438/23/1943
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis50163676448/31/1943
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis51164676458/31/1943
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis52165676469/7/1943
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis53166676479/7/1943
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis54167676489/7/1943
Baltimore & Ohio413168676498/26/1943
Baltimore & Ohio414169676508/27/1943
Baltimore & Ohio415170676518/30/1943
Baltimore & Ohio416171676528/30/1943
Central Of Georgia26172676539/13/1943
Colorado & Wyoming1107173676549/24/1943
Colorado & Wyoming1108174676559/25/1943
Pittsburgh & West Virginia30175676569/13/1943
Southern Pacific1378176676579/27/1943
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1004177676589/30/1943
U.S. Navy61786765910/4/1943
Western Maryland128 (1st)179676609/24/1943
Western Maryland129 (2nd)180676619/25/1943
Atlantic Coast Line6161866966710/4/1943
Atlantic Coast Line6171876966810/9/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2071886966910/14/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2081886967010/15/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2091906967110/26/1943
Union PacificDS12001916967210/15/1943
Carbon County Railway262-11936977311/10/1943
Carbon County Railway262-21946977411/11/1943
Union PacificDS12011956977510/26/1943
Union PacificDS12021966977610/26/1943
Union PacificDS12031976977710/26/1943
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93501986977811/5/1943
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93511996977911/5/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2102006978011/18/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2112016978111/18/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2122026978211/20/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2132036978311/17/1943
Great Northern1372056978511/12/1943
Western Maryland1302066978611/12/1943
Western Maryland1312076978711/13/1943
U.S. Navy4208701024/25/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93522097010312/2/1943
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93532107010412/2/1943
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93542117010512/2/1943
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93552127010612/2/1943
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific7602137010712/2/1943
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific7612147010812/2/1943
Great Northern1382157010912/6/1943
Baltimore & Ohio4172187011211/27/1943
Baltimore & Ohio4182197011311/30/1943
Baltimore & Ohio4192207011412/1/1943
Baltimore & Ohio4202217011512/1/1943
Colorado & Wyoming11092227011612/29/1943
Kentucky & Indiana Terminal472237011712/23/1943
Southern Pacific1379224701181/23/1943
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93562257011912/29/1943
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93572267012012/29/1943
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1685227701211/19/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2242287012212/31/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2252297012312/31/1943
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2262307012412/31/1943
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)214231701251/17/1944
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)215232701261/15/1944
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)216233701271/16/1944
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific762235701291/13/1944
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific763236701301/13/1944
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific764237701311/13/1944
Canton Railroad30238701321/22/1944
Canton Railroad31239701331/23/1944
Northern Pacific119245701392/18/1944
Northern Pacific120246701402/17/1944
Northern Pacific121247701412/21/1944
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific1686248701422/14/1944
Southern Pacific1380249701432/20/1944
Southern Pacific1381250701442/18/1944
Southern Pacific1382251701452/29/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2227252701462/18/1944
Union PacificDS1204253701472/25/1944
Union PacificDS1205254701482/25/1944
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha (C&NW)87255701493/6/1944
Western Maryland132256701502/18/1944
Northern Pacific122259701533/10/1944
Southern Pacific1371260701543/7/1944
Southern Pacific1372261701553/13/1944
Atlantic Coast Line619262701563/15/1944
Atlantic Coast Line621263701573/6/1944
Atlantic Coast Line623264701583/5/1944
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1006265701593/10/1944
St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico (MP)9153266701603/20/1944
St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico (MP)9154267701613/21/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2228268701623/23/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2229269701633/24/1944
International-Great Northern (MP)9150273701674/8/1944
International-Great Northern (MP)9151274701684/9/1944
International-Great Northern (MP)9152275701694/2/1944
St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico (MP)9155276701704/5/1944
Louisville & Nashville2206277701714/3/1944
Louisville & Nashville2207278701724/5/1944
Louisville & Nashville2208279701734/6/1944
Central Of Georgia27280701744/8/1944
Chicago Short Line101281701754/23/1944
Central Railroad Of New Jersey1062282701764/4/1944
Northern Pacific153283708425/2/1944
Lehigh Valley135284708434/17/1944
Lehigh Valley136285708444/17/1944
Lehigh Valley137286708454/21/1944
Lehigh Valley138287708464/21/1944
Lehigh Valley139288708474/23/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2245289708485/3/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2246290708495/3/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2247291708505/4/1944
Central Railroad Of New Jersey1063292708514/28/1944
Central Railroad Of New Jersey1064293708527/31/1944
Southern Pacific1373294708535/17/1944
Louisville & Nashville2209295708545/8/1944
Louisville & Nashville2210296708555/8/1944
U.S. War DepartmentME-39-238297708565/27/1944
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific1687298708575/15/1944
Baltimore & Ohio421299708585/8/1944
Baltimore & Ohio422300708595/8/1944
Northern Pacific154301708606/7/1944
Northern Pacific155302708616/2/1944
Southern Pacific1374303708626/4/1944
Southern Pacific1383304708636/4/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2230305708645/29/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2231306708656/6/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2232307706886/6/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2233308708676/5/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2234309708686/5/1944
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)218310708696/16/1944
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)219311708706/13/1944
U.S. War Department7226312708716/10/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2235313708726/16/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2236314708736/16/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2237315708746/20/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2238316708756/20/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2239317708766/26/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2240318708776/25/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2241319708786/24/1944
Baltimore & Ohio423320708796/21/1944
Southern Pacific1384321708807/20/1944
Southern Pacific1385322708817/20/1944
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)220323708827/11/1944
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)221324708837/11/1944
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern478325708847/14/1944
U.S. War Department7227326708857/3/1944
U.S. Navy6327718867/31/1944
Northern Pacific124328719268/2/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2242329719277/25/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2243330719287/29/1944
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2244331719297/29/1944
Baltimore & Ohio424332719307/19/1944
Baltimore & Ohio425333719317/20/1944
Baltimore & Ohio426334719327/21/1944
Baltimore & Ohio427335719337/24/1944
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1007336719348/12/1944
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1008337719358/10/1944
Central Railroad Of New Jersey1065338719367/31/1944
Central Railroad Of New Jersey1066339719378/1/1944
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern479340719388/8/1944
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern480341719398/8/1944
U.S. Navy8342719408/7/1944
Chicago & North Western1024343719418/18/1944
Great Northern139344719428/30/1944
Great Northern140345719438/31/1944
Great Northern141346719449/1/1944
Great Northern142347719459/1/1944
Great Northern143348719469/6/1944
Great Northern144349719479/6/1944
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)222353719519/17/1944
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis597354719529/17/1944
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis598355719539/16/1944
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern481356719549/28/1944
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern482357719559/28/1944
New York Central86003607195810/2/1944
New York Central86013617195910/2/1944
New York Central86023627196010/2/1944
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern4833637196110/10/1944
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis5993647196210/24/1944
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis6003657196310/24/1944
Terminal Railroad Association Of St. Louis6013667196410/24/1944
Western Railway Of Alabama6213677196510/6/1944
Western Railway Of Alabama6223687196610/6/1944
Western Railway Of Alabama6233697196710/6/1944
U.S. Navy103707196810/7/1944
U.S. Navy93717196910/7/1944
U.S. Navy103727197010/27/1944
U.S. Navy113737029012/4/1944
U.S. Navy123747029112/8/1944
U.S. Navy133757029212/11/1944
U.S. Navy143767029312/12/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93583777029411/15/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93593787029511/14/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93603797029611/14/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93613807029711/14/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93623817029811/14/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93633827029911/12/1944
New York Central86033837030011/3/1944
New York Central86043847030111/3/1944
Minneapolis & St. LouisD1453857030211/17/1944
Belt Railway Of Chicago4023867030311/12/1944
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern4843877030411/1/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93643887030511/23/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93653897030612/7/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93663907030712/7/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93673917030812/7/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93683927030912/8/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93693937031012/12/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93703947031112/11/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93713957031212/14/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93723967031312/14/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93733977031412/21/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93743987031512/21/1944
Western Railway Of Alabama6243997031612/13/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93754007031712/21/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93764017031812/21/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93774027031912/22/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93784037197712/22/1944
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy93794047197812/23/1944
Seaboard Air Line14134057197912/27/1944
Seaboard Air Line14144067198011/14/1945
Seaboard Air Line14154077198112/29/1944
Seaboard Air Line141640871982td>1/1/1945
U.S. Navy18409719832/28/1945
U.S. Navy19410719843/5/1945
U.S. Navy5411719852/21/1945
U.S. Navy21412719862/21/1945
U.S. Navy15413719872/19/1945
U.S. Navy16414719882/17/1945
Baltimore & Ohio428415719891/21/1945
Baltimore & Ohio429416719901/24/1945
Baltimore & Ohio430417719911/25/1945
Baltimore & Ohio431418714261/27/1945
Baltimore & Ohio432419714271/28/1945
U.S. Navy13420714282/3/1945
U.S. Navy14421714292/13/1945
U.S. Navy19422714302/7/1945
Chicago Short Line102423717292/17/1945
New York Central8605424717302/23/1945
New York Central8606425717312/25/1945
New York Central8607426717322/27/1945
Baltimore & Ohio433427717332/19/1945
Baltimore & Ohio434428717342/23/1945
Baltimore & Ohio435429717352/23/1945
Baltimore & Ohio436430717362/26/1945
Baltimore & Ohio437431717372/25/1945
U.S. Navy1432717383/23/1945
U.S. Navy2433717393/23/1945
U.S. War DepartmentV/800434717404/6/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1009435717413/13/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1010436717423/18/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)223437717433/22/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)224438717443/20/1945
U.S. War DepartmentV/801439717454/7/1945
Chicago & North Western1037440717463/27/1945
Chicago & North Western1038441717473/26/1945
U.S. Navy3442717484/24/1945
U.S. Navy4443717494/18/1945
Missouri Pacific9117444717504/2/1945
Northern Pacific159445717514/14/1945
Northern Pacific160446717524/14/1945
U.S. Navy22447717535/9/1945
U.S. Navy23448717545/6/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)225449717554/13/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)226450717564/16/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)227451717574/23/1945
Detroit Terminal101452717584/23/1945
Detroit Terminal102453720054/23/1945
U.S. Navy9454720065/10/1945
Philadelphia, Bethlehem & New England251455720074/21/1945
Philadelphia, Bethlehem & New England252456720084/21/1945
Chicago & North Western1039457720095/4/1945
Chicago & North Western1040458720105/12/1945
Northern Pacific161459720115/21/1945
Missouri Pacific9118460720125/11/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)228461720135/17/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1011462720145/16/1945
Chicago & North Western1041463720155/25/1945
Chicago & North Western1042464720165/21/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)229465720165/21/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1012466720186/5/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1013467720197/9/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1014468720207/9/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1015469720217/6/1945
Chicago & North Western1043470720207/9/1945
Northern Pacific162471720237/21/1945
Northern Pacific163472720247/21/1945
Northern Pacific164473720257/22/1945
Missouri Pacific9119474720267/19/1945
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha (C&NW)88475720277/27/1945
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha (C&NW)89476720287/27/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2248477720297/26/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2249478720307/26/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2250479720318/1/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2251480720328/4/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2252481720338/4/1945
U.S. Navy12482720348/20/1945
U.S. Navy13483720358/19/1945
Northern Pacific165484720368/26/1945
Northern Pacific166485720378/22/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1016486720388/25/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)1017487720398/23/1945
U.S. Navy37488720409/5/1945
U.S. Navy38489720419/5/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2253490720429/1/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2254491720439/1/1945
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1688492720449/16/1945
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1689493720459/16/1945
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1690494720469/16/1945
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific (Milwaukee Road)1691495720479/22/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2255496720489/10/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe2256497720499/11/1945
U.S. Navy35498715249/9/1945
U.S. Navy36499715259/16/1945
Missouri Pacific9198500715269/26/1945
Missouri Pacific9199501715279/26/1945
Western Pacific5815027152810/14/1945
Western Pacific5825037152910/14/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe22575047153010/4/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe22585057153110/4/1945
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe22595067153210/2/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2305077153310/20/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2315087153410/26/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2325097153510/20/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2335107153610/17/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2345117153710/15/1945
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)2355127153810/10/1945
Spokane, Portland & Seattle335137153911/2/1945
Spokane, Portland & Seattle345147154010/31/1945
Northern Pacific1675157154110/11/1945
Western Pacific5835167154211/7/1945
Western Pacific5845177154311/7/1945
Western Pacific5855187154411/7/1945
Northern Pacific1685197154510/26/1945
Northern Pacific1695207154611/12/1945
Northern Pacific1705217154711/13/1945
Northern Pacific1715227154811/23/1945
Northern Pacific1725237154911/23/1945
Northern Pacific1735247155011/24/1945
Northern Pacific1745257155111/24/1945
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie (Soo Line)3105287155411/8/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)10185297155511/27/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)10195307155612/5/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)10205317155712/9/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)10215327155812/13/1945
St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt)10225337155912/14/1945
American Steel & Wire12534715601/8/1946
Chicago & North Western10445357156112/26/1945
Chicago & North Western10455367156212/27/1945
Chicago & North Western1046537715631/3/1946
Chicago & North Western1047538715641/3/1946
St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico (MP)9160539715655/5/1946
St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico (MP)9161540715665/5/1946
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)236541715676/5/1946
St. Louis-San Francisco (Frisco)237542715686/7/1946
Escanaba & Lake Superior100543722276/13/1946
Tennessee Eastman Corporation4544722286/7/1946
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad800546722306/25/1946
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad801547722316/28/1946
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad802552727897/15/1946
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad803553727907/16/1946

During the course of the VO-1000's production, Baldwin introduced several changes and improvements.  These were differentiated by "Lots" according to the manufacturer.  The VO-1000 was built in Lots "A" through "W". 

Most updates were minor although two notables include the lowering of the cab roof from 14' 6" to 14' beginning with Northern Pacific #109 (Baldwin serial #24), which introduced the "B" Lot and several improvements that brought about the "G" Lot.

The former ("B" Lot") improved clearance restrictions under bridges and within tunnels while the latter ("G" Lot), that began with U.S. War Department #7129 saw the VO-1000 reequipped with Westinghouse's latest traction motors (model 362D), main generator (model 480A), auxiliary-exciter generator (model YG40), and updated gearing (14:68).

Santa Fe VO-1000 #2253 is seen here at work in Slaton, Texas, circa 1970. American-Rails.com collection.


Over the years, many railroads rebuilt theirs with Electro-Motive prime movers; the move not only extended their service lives but also streamlined maintenance after Baldwin ended production in 1956.

The Great Northern, for example, completely salvaged their VO-1000's, turning them into transfer cabooses. The most interesting, however, was Santa Fe's retrofitting one its VO-1000s into what became known as the "Beep" (also known as the SWBLW or "SWitcher, Baldwin Locomotive Works). 

The company repowered the locomotive with an EMD model 567C prime mover and had to construct a GP7-like hood (only shorter) to house the engine. The locomotive, though, kept its original Baldwin frame although it was given updated Blomberg B trucks.

It entered service in December, 1970 and even though Santa Fe determined the idea unsuccessful the "Beep" (or "Baldwin Geep") remained in service until it was donated to the Western America Railroad Museum of Barstow, California.  


  • Foster, Gerald. A Field Guide To Trains. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996.

  • Kirkland, John F. Diesel Builders, The:  Volume Three, Baldwin Locomotive Works. Pasadena: Interurban Press, 1994.

  • Pinkepank, Jerry A. Diesel Spotter's Guide.  Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Company, 1967.

  • Solomon, Brian.  Baldwin Locomotives.  Minneapolis:  Voyageur Press, 2009.


Wes Barris's SteamLocomotive.com is simply the best web resource on the study of steam locomotives. 

It is difficult to truly articulate just how much material can be found at this website. 

It is quite staggering and a must visit!